UOM Scaling up Process Case Study Questions

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I’m working on a communications writing question and need support to help me learn.

1.Think about an organization you are familiar with that uses both human relations and human resources principles in its management and communication practices. Describe these practices and discuss the impact of these practices on organizational outcomes such as productivity and worker satisfaction. Does one approach seem to work better than the other? How would you summarize the “up side” and the “down side” of human relations and human resources management?
2. Describe how the university you attend exhibits the following systems components: hierarchical ordering, interdependence, and permeability. 
3. Describe what Lilius, Worline, Dutton, Kanov, and Maitlus (2011) found about how the collective capacity for compassion was developed and maintained at Midwest Billing.
4.Explain how a message from a speaker in an organization would evolve through the degrees of separation in the scaling up process. 

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Organizational Communication
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Organizational Communication:
Approaches and Processes
SEVENTH EDITION
Katherine Miller
Arizona State University
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
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Organizational Communication:
Approaches and Processes, Seventh Edition
Katherine Miller
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About the Author
Dr. Katherine Miller is a leading scholar on processes of emotion and compassion
in the workplace. She holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in communication
from Michigan State University, and a doctorate from the Annenberg School of
Communication at the University of Southern California. She is currently a professor at Arizona State University and has also served on the faculties of Michigan
State University, University of Kansas, and Texas A&M University. Dr. Miller is
the author of four books and more than sixty journal articles and book chapters.
v
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Brief Contents
Preface xvii
CHAPTER 1
The Challenge of Organizational Communication
CHAPTER 2
Classical Approaches 17
CHAPTER 3
Human Relations and Human Resources Approaches 37
CHAPTER 4
Systems and Cultural Approaches 60
CHAPTER 5
Constitutive Approaches 82
CHAPTER 6
Critical and Feminist Approaches 99
CHAPTER 7
Socialization Processes 119
CHAPTER 8
Decision-Making Processes 139
CHAPTER 9
Conflict Management Processes
158
CHAPTER 10 Organizational Change and Leadership Processes
CHAPTER 11 Processes of Emotion in the Workplace
CHAPTER 12 Organizational Diversity Processes
CHAPTER 13 Technological Processes
1
176
195
216
235
CHAPTER 14 The Changing Landscape of Organizations
254
Glossary 271
References 281
Name Index 309
Subject Index 317
vii
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Contents
Preface xvii
CHAPTER 1
The Challenge of Organizational Communication
Our Complicated World
1
2
Globalization 3
Terrorism 4
CASE IN POINT: Can Tragedy Lead to Change? 5
Climate Change 7
Changing Demographics 8
CASE IN POINT: 400 Million People 10
Complicating Our Thinking about Organizations 11
Complicating Our Thinking about Communication 12
Looking Ahead
CHAPTER 2
14
Classical Approaches 17
The Machine Metaphor 18
Henri Fayol’s Theory of Classical Management
Elements of Management 19
Principles of Management 20
Principles of Organizational Structure
19
20
Principles of Organizational Power 21
Principles of Organizational Reward 22
Principles of Organizational Attitude 22
Summary of Fayol’s Theory 22
CASE IN POINT: Are There Limits to Rewards?
23
Max Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy 23
Frederick Taylor’s Theory of Scientific Management
Impetus for the Theory of Scientific Management
Components of Scientific Management 26
CASE IN POINT: Systematic Surgery 27
Communication in Classical Approaches
25
26
28
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Scientific Management—The Internet Update
29
ix
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x
Contents
Content of Communication 30
Direction of Communication Flow
Channel of Communication 31
Style of Communication 31
30
Classical Management in Organizations Today
32
Classical Structure in Today’s Organizations 32
Classical Job Design and Rewards in Today’s Organizations
CASE STUDY: The Creamy Creations Takeover 35
CHAPTER 3
33
Human Relations and Human Resources Approaches 37
The Human Relations Approach
38
From Classical Theory to Human Relations: The Hawthorne
Studies 38
The Illumination Studies 38
The Relay Assembly Test Room Studies 38
The Interview Program 39
The Bank Wiring Room Studies 39
Explanations of Findings in the Hawthorne Studies
39
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 40
CASE IN POINT: Satisfying Higher-Order Needs by Satisfying Lower-Order
Needs 42
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 42
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Communicating Like a Theory Y Leader 44
The Human Resources Approach
45
Impetus for the Human Resources Approach
45
Do Human Relations Principles Work? 46
Misuse of Human Relations Principles 47
CASE IN POINT: Slashing Emergency Room Waiting Times
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid 48
Likert’s System IV 50
48
Communication in Human Relations and Human
Resources Organizations 52
Content of Communication 52
Direction of Communication Flow
Channel of Communication 52
Style of Communication 53
52
Human Relations and Human Resources Organizations Today
53
The What of Human Resources Programs 54
The How of Human Resources Programs 55
CASE IN POINT: From the Golf Course to the Gym 56
CASE STUDY: Teamwork at Marshall’s Processing Plant 58
CHAPTER 4
Systems and Cultural Approaches 60
The Systems Metaphor and Systems Concepts
System Components 61
Hierarchical Ordering
61
61
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Contents
xi
CASE IN POINT: Searching the Internet for Cultural Values 76
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Building Systems and Cultures of Compassion
CASE STUDY: The Cultural Tale of Two Shuttles 79
77
Interdependence 62
Permeability 62
System Processes 63
System Properties 63
Holism 64
Equifinality 64
Negative Entropy
Requisite Variety
64
64
Systems Approaches to Organizational Communication
Communication Networks
66
66
Properties of Networks 66
Properties of Network Links 67
Network Roles 67
Explanatory Mechanisms 67
Karl Weick’s Theory of Organizing 68
CASE IN POINT: Making Sense of My Money
The Cultural Metaphor
70
71
Prescriptive Approaches to Culture
72
Deal and Kennedy’s “Strong Cultures” 72
Peters and Waterman’s “Excellent Cultures”
72
Descriptive and Explanatory Approaches to Culture
Organizational Cultures Are Complicated 74
Organizational Cultures Are Emergent 75
Organizational Cultures Are Not Unitary 75
Organizational Cultures Are Often Ambiguous
CHAPTER 5
74
76
Constitutive Approaches 82
Communicative Constitution of Organizations
The Montreal School 85
83
Text and Conversation 85
Constitution as “Scaling Up” 86
Current Directions 87
CASE IN POINT: The Textual Power of Emoticons 88
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Constituting Collaboration
The Four Flows
89
90
Membership Negotiation 90
Self-Structuring 91
Activity Coordination 91
CASE IN POINT: The Four Flows—Vatican Style
Institutional Positioning 93
CASE STUDY: A Drop in the Bucket 96
93
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xii
Contents
CHAPTER 6
Critical and Feminist Approaches 99
Critical Approaches
101
The Pervasiveness of Power
101
Control of Modes and Means of Production
Control of Organizational Discourse 104
103
Ideology and Hegemony 105
CASE IN POINT: Power of the Pretty 106
Emancipation 106
Resistance 107
A Theory of Concertive Control 108
Identification 109
Discipline 109
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Patriarchy in Public and Private Life
Feminist Approaches
110
111
CASE IN POINT: Using the F Word 113
Sexual Harassment 114
Discourse at Women-Led Businesses 115
Disciplined Bodies 115
CASE STUDY: Talking Turkey 117
CHAPTER 7
Socialization Processes 119
Models of Organizational Socialization
Phases of Socialization
120
120
Anticipatory Socialization
Encounter 122
121
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Organizational Entry as a Laughing Matter
Metamorphosis
123
123
Content of Socialization 124
Summary of Socialization Models
125
Communication Processes During Socialization
Recruiting and Interviewing 125
CASE IN POINT: The 140 Character Résumé
125
126
The Interview as a Recruiting and Screening Tool 127
The Interview as an Information-Gathering Tool 127
The Interview as a Tool for Socialization 128
Newcomer Information-Seeking Tactics
Role-Development Processes 130
128
Role-Taking Phase 130
Role-Making Phase 130
Role-Routinization Phase 131
Beyond the Leadership Dyad 131
Organizational Exit 133
CASE IN POINT: The Economics of Exit and Entry
CASE STUDY: The Church Search 136
133
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Contents
CHAPTER 8
xiii
Decision-Making Processes 139
Models of the Decision-Making Process
140
Rational Models of Decision Making 140
Alternatives to Rational Models 140
CASE IN POINT: Personal Finance Decisions 141
CASE IN POINT: Big Data 142
Small-Group Decision Making
143
Descriptive Models of Small-Group Decision Making
Effective Small-Group Decision Making 144
Beyond Rational Group Processes 146
Participation and Collaboration
143
146
Participation in Decision-Making
147
The Affective Model 147
The Cognitive Model 148
Evidence for Models of Participation
148
Workplace Democracy 149
Collaboration Processes 150
Communication and Organizational Knowledge 151
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Who Are the Experts? 152
CASE STUDY: Too Many Majors 156
CHAPTER 9
Conflict Management Processes 158
Conceptualizing the Conflict Process
159
Defining Conflict 159
Levels of Organizational Conflict 160
Phases of Organizational Conflict 160
Managing Organizational Conflict
Conflict Styles
161
162
Description 162
Critique of Conflict Styles Construct
New Directions 164
163
Bargaining and Negotiation 165
CASE IN POINT: Working with Jerks 165
Third-Party Conflict Resolution 167
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Framing Intractable Conflict
168
Factors Influencing the Conflict Management Process
169
Personal Factors 169
Relational Factors 170
Cultural Factors 170
A Feminist View of Conflict 171
CASE IN POINT: Cat Fight 172
CASE STUDY: The Problem with Teamwork
174
CHAPTER 10 Organizational Change and Leadership Processes
Organizational Change Processes
176
177
The Complexity of Organizational Change
Reactions to Organizational Change 178
177
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xiv
Contents
Communication in the Change Process 180
“Unplanned” Change: Organizational Crisis 182
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Equivocal Reponses to Crisis
Organizational Leadership
185
Models of Leadership 185
CASE IN POINT: Leaderless Music 186
CASE IN POINT: Horse Whispering for Leaders
Communication and Leadership
188
188
CASE STUDY: Leading Nurses through Hospital Change
CHAPTER 11 Processes of Emotion in the Workplace
Emotion in the Workplace
184
193
195
196
Emotion as Part of the Job 197
CASE IN POINT: “The Cruise from Hell” 197
Emotion as Part of Workplace Relationships 199
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Lining Up for Emotion 200
Emotion Rules and Emotional Intelligence 202
Stress, Burnout, and Social Support in the Workplace
Burnout 204
Communication as a Cause of Burnout
205
Emotional Labor as a Contributor to Burnout
Empathy, Communication, and Burnout 206
Coping with Burnout
203
206
208
Individual and Organizational Coping Strategies 208
Communicative Coping: Participation in Decision Making
Communicative Coping: Social Support 209
CASE IN POINT: Stretched Thin in the Emergency Room
CASE STUDY: Inexplicable Events 213
CHAPTER 12 Organizational Diversity Processes
210
216
Women and Minorities in Today’s Organizations
CASE IN POINT: Judging Women 218
Stereotyping and Discrimination 219
Relational Barriers in Organizational Systems
Beyond Women and Minorities 221
CASE IN POINT: Sensitivity Training 223
The Multicultural Organization
209
217
220
223
The Diverse Organization: Opportunities 225
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Questioning the Business Case
The Diverse Organization: Challenges 227
Avoiding Negative Effects of Diversity Management Programs
Balancing Work and Home 229
227
228
Managing (and Celebrating) Cultural Diversity 230
CASE STUDY: The Complex Challenges of Encouraging Diversity
233
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Contents
CHAPTER 13 Technological Processes
xv
235
Types of Organizational Communication Technology
CASE IN POINT: Don’t Forget the Thank-You Note
Understanding Technology Adoption and Use
The Importance of Technology Attributes
The Importance of Social Factors 242
236
237
239
240
Effects of Information and Communication Technology
243
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: Doodling in the Age of Technology 245
Social Media: From Public Relations to Politics and Justice 246
Virtual Organizing and Telework 246
CASE IN POINT: Caring at a Distance 248
CASE STUDY: High-Tech Gardening 252
CHAPTER 14 The Changing Landscape of Organizations
254
Communication in the Global Workplace
Effects of Globalization
255
257
Communication in an Era of Shifting Identity
CASE IN POINT: Image Gone Viral
260
261
Communication in a Service Economy
262
SPOTLIGHT ON SCHOLARSHIP: What Can You Do with That Major?
Communication in the Age of the Disposable Worker
265
266
CASE IN POINT: Generation Y in the Workplace 268
CASE STUDY: Charting the Changing Nature of Work 269
Glossary 271
References 281
Name Index 309
Subject Index 317
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Preface
As I have noted in the previous editions of this book, the “ages” of scholarly fields
are notoriously hard to pinpoint. Most would agree, however, that organizational
communication has been around for well over six decades. The infancy of the discipline was marked by struggles for survival and nurturance from other disciplines.
The discipline’s teenage years—the time when I was entering the field—saw a questioning of identity and fights for autonomy. Today, organizational communication
has reached a maturity few would have envisioned in the middle of the twentieth
century, and the field now encompasses a healthy eclecticism, in that a variety of
theoretical approaches provides contrasting accounts of the ways in which communicating and organizing intersect. And this is definitely a good thing, for few would
have predicted the changes that have occurred in our world—changes in politics,
business, technology, values, the environment. We need a solid but dynamic understanding of organizational communication to cope with this complex and changing
world.
This book attempts to reflect the eclectic maturity of the field of organizational
communication. When I began writing the first edition of this book almost twenty
years ago, my first conceptual decision was not to advocate a particular approach
to the field. Instead, I tried to show that both traditional and contemporary perspectives provide potentially illuminating views of organizational communication
processes.
For example, a critical theorist, an ethnographer, and a systems researcher
may all look at a particular organizational communication phenomenon—say, socialization practices—and see very different things. A systems theorist might see a
cybernetic system in which the goal of organizational assimilation is enhanced
through a variety of structural and individual communication mechanisms. A cultural researcher might see socialization as a process through which the values and
practices of an organizational culture are revealed to—and created by—individuals
during organizational entry. A critical theorist might see socialization as a process
through which individuals are drawn into hegemonic relationships that reinforce
the traditional power structure of the organization.
All these views of the organizational socialization process are limited in that
each obscures some aspects of organizational entry. But each view is also illuminating. Thus, early chapters of this book cover a gamut of academic approaches—from
classical through human relations and human resources to systems, cultural, and
xvii
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xviii Preface
critical—as lenses through which organizational communication can be viewed. The
strengths and weaknesses of each approach are considered, but no particular approach is presented as inherently superior.
My next important choice in writing this book was deciding how to organize
the voluminous research literature on organizational communication. At the time I
started writing this book, most textbooks had taken a “levels” approach, considering in turn organizational communication at the individual, dyadic, group, and organizational levels. I find this approach frustrating both because there are some
things that happen at multiple levels (for example, we make decisions alone, in
dyads, and in groups) and because there are processes that are not easily linked to
any of these levels. (For example, where does communication technology fit in? At
what level do we consider emotion in the workplace?) Thus, the chapters in the
second half of this textbook involve a consideration of organizational communication processes.
My goals in the “processes” portion of the book are fourfold. First, I want the
processes considered to be up to date in reflecting current concerns of both organizational communication scholars and practitioners. Thus, in addition to looking at
traditional concerns, such as decision making and conflict, this textbook highlights
communication processes related to cultural and gender diversity, communication
technology, organizational change, and emotional approaches to organizational
communication. Second, I want to be as comprehensive as possible in describing
relevant theory and research on each topic. Thus, each “process” chapter highlights both foundational and current research on organizational communication
processes from the fields, including communication, management, industrial psychology, and sociology. Third, I want students to understand that each of these
communication processes can be viewed through a variety of theoretical lenses, so
I conclude each chapter with a section on the insights of the approaches considered
in the first half of the book. Finally, I want readers to realize that organizational
communication is a concern to individuals beyond the ivory towers of academia.
Thus, I have included many real-world examples both in the discussion of each
process and in pedagogical features.
ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT
This textbook explores the world of organizational communication in terms of both
scholarship and application. The majority of chapters consider either approaches
that have shaped our beliefs about organizational communication practice and
study (Chapters 2–6) or chapters that consider specific organizational communication processes (Chapters 7–13). The first two chapters on “approaches” (Chapters
2–3) both consider prescriptive approaches on how organizational communication
should operate (Classical Approaches, Human Relations, and Human Resources
Approaches), while the following three approaches chapters (Chapters 4–6) consider
contemporary approaches regarding how we can best describe, understand, explain,
and critique organizational communication (Systems and Cultural approaches, Constitutive Approaches, and Critical Approaches). When we move on to the “processes” chapters, we first consider enduring processes that have always
characterized communication in organizations in Chapters 7 to 10 (Assimilation
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface
xix
Processes, Decision-Making Processes, Conflict Management Processes, and Change
and Leadership Processes). Then, in Chapters 11 to 13, we look at emerging processes that have come into play in recent decades (Processes of Emotion in the
Workplace, Organizational Diversity Processes, and Technological Processes). These
chapters are bracketed by an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) and a concluding
chapter (Chapter 14) that put these approaches and processes into context by considering specific challenges in today’s world and the ways in which the study of organizational communication can help us deal with these challenges.
Those familiar with this textbook will note a number of changes from the sixth
edition, which will enhance student understanding of organizational communication.
One major change is a brand new chapter considering constitutive approaches
(Chapter 5). Ideas regarding the communicative constitution of organization (CCO)
have become increasingly important in our discipline in recent years, and I decided
that these developments deserved a chapter-long consideration in this new edition.
Chapter 6 has also been revised to consider feminist approaches as distinct from critical theory. In addition, all of the chapters have been updated to include current research and theory, leading to the addition of well over one hundred new references,
with particular emphasis on current events and contemporary research conducted
by communication scholars. The seventh edition of Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes continues from the first six editions many features
that are designed to develop students’ abilities to integrate and apply the material.
The seventh edition continues to include the “Spotlight on Scholarship” features,
highlighting specific research that illustrates concepts considered in the chapter—six
spotlights are new to this edition. I have retained other pedagogical features from
earlier editions, including explicit links among the “approa

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Rebecca L.

Researcher

Critical Thinking / Review

Extremely thorough summary, understanding and examples found for social science readings, with edits made as needed and on time. Transparent

Arnold W.

Customer

Coursework

Perfect!

Joshua W.

Student

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