UCLA Communications Election Fraud Claims 2021 & Resilience Presentataion

Description

Part 1:

Identify a crisis and analyze how crisis was, or is currently being managed in communication, policy, and actions as described by key crisis actors, agencies, or news reports
Evaluate crisis management and make recommendations for improving crisis communications drawing upon class readings

Clear statement of crisis and ILLUSTRATIONS of ACTUAL CRISIS COMMUNICATIONS
Clear statement of management of crisis
Clear evaluation of crisis management – e.g., how effective were communication and crisis management approach in managing BOTH stakeholder concerns and crisis conditions?
Drawing on class readings and additional academic and/or professional crisis management sources, evaluate and make recommendation for more effective management
List of references with all references in the last also cited on the appropriate PowerPoint slide

EXAMPLES OF CRISES FROM 2020
Crisis Review https://www.provokemedia.com/long-reads/article/crisis-review-the-top-20-crises-of-2020-(part-1-of-3) (Links to an external site.) 

Part 2: Complete as separate Powerpoint 
Find or produce a campaign aimed at promoting resilience.
If you are evaluating an existing campaign, use this template to report your finding (Attached Below)
, which will be shared with the class.
If you are producing a resilience campaign, use this template to report your campaign components

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2010 BP Oil
Spill:
A Case Analysis
By Alexandria Phillips
Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Crisis & Crisis Communication
2. 2010 BP Oil Spill
3. Management: Strategies & Actions
4. Public Relations
5. Management: Long Term Effects
6. Suggestions: Improving Crisis Communication
7. References
8. Partner Feedback
01
Introduction
Crisis & Crisis Communication
Crisis & Crisis Communication
In broad terms, a crisis is a time of intense difficulty or danger, requiring
critical judgments and time-sensitive decisions. These dangers can be
socio-political, economical, medical, militaristic, religious, etcetera.
It is important for everyone to have a crisis communication plan, especially
critical for governments and organizations, as crisis communication in the
before, during, and after stages of a national crisis can define the whole
situation.
Nadesan, M. (2021)
Lecture 2: Introducing Idea of Crisis
Crisis & Crisis Communication
Crisis communication involves:
● Having strategies and protocols developed during risk
communication stage
● Accurately representing the crisis
● Understanding scholarly & professional perspectives
● Communicating with media and specific audiences
● Minimizing negative outcomes
Bellisario, D. P.
BP Oil Spill
02
2010 BP Oil
Spill
What Happened?
On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon mobile drill, located in the Gulf of Mexico,
exploded and caught fire, releasing approximately 134 million gallons of oil from the
Macondo well, owned by BP Exploration & Production. Oil about 1 mile deep and 50
miles offshore poured out unchecked. The currents, winds, and tides further carried
the oil slicks away from the gulf, spreading the oil across 1,300 miles of shoreline.
Over the course of the spill (April 20, 201- September 19, 2010) “oil was detected on
over 43,300 square miles (112,100 square kilometers) of the ocean, an area about the
size of Virginia.”
Bp worked closely with the following companies to combat the crisis: Transocean,
Cameron, and Wild Well Control.
Gulf Spill Restoration
Chapter 2: Incident Overview
Staff Working Papers
Stopping the spill:
Location of BP Oil Spill
Deepwater Horizon
Oil Rig, Gulf of
Mexico
03
Management
Strategies & Actions
BP Emergency Response
On April 20th, BP and Transocean (offshore drilling contractor) worked together to
stem the flow of oil form the Macondo drill. They focused on the leak coming from a
portion of the drill called the BOP, meaning “blowout preventer.” A BOP is a
specialized valve used to seal, contain and monitor the pressure the oil and gas wells
to prevent blowouts and uncontrollable leaks.
BP delayed action due to concern that sealing the BOP would result in an
underground blowout as well.
By April 23rd, it was discovered that there was a leak in 2 other portions of the drill,
and BP began to consider other options.
Staff Working Papers
Stopping the spill
Method: Cofferdam
Various methods and strategies were used to try to
contain and get rid of the quickly spreading oil,
including a Cofferdam.
BP started using this method April 25th, but in the
end it failed. Due to poor planning by BP, the
cofferdam became clogged, during installation,
with the collected hydrocarbons being channeled
to ships on the water’s surface, allowing methane
gas into contact with the cold ocean water.
So, other methods were used.
Gulf Spill Restoration
Chapter 2: Incident Overview
Image: https://wangzhujun.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/cofferdam.jpg
Containment Methods
Money was no issue for BP, if something needed to be made they handled it:
“Several MMS officials agreed that, for BP, money was no object: If a team
needed equipment, whether it was a ship, freestanding riser, or flexible
hose, BP would buy it. As Suttles pointed out, BP’s parallel processing
effort required enormous resources, and the size of its presence in the Gulf
of Mexico was a big advantage.”
-Staff Working Papers
Stopping the spill
Other methods BP used were:


Skimming
Dispersants


Freshwater releases
Situ burnings
Gulf Spill Restoration
Chapter 2: Incident Overview
Containment Methods Cont’d
NOAA
SCAT Program
Freshwater Releases
Wildlife capture,
transportation,
rehabilitation & relocation
were implemented.
Directed shoreline
treatments occurred across
northern gulf of Mexico for
beaches & marshes.
A series of water releases
from Mississippi River, &
salinity control structure in
9 locations.
Skimming
Dispersants
Situ Burnings
Mechanical skimmers were
used to remove oil and
oil-water mixtures from
water’s surface.
Chemicals were used to
degrade the oil to prevent
‘oil slicks’ near shoreline
habitats.
Aerial spotters directed
burnings of the oil, releasing
high concentrations of
smoke.
04
Public
Relations
PR & what went wrong
Crisis communication deals with the ethical implication involved in crises. How companies
and agencies involved in a crisis affects public opinion and response, company image, and
the action taken towards the crisis.
BP used multiple strategies and technologies to contain the spill. However, these efforts
were necessary due to poor crisis planning by BP executives, the government, and the oil
industry. Also, BP ultimately denied responsibility and accountability by not doing as they
said they would in their press releases (Bellisario, n.d.; Environmental Protection Agency,
n.d.)
Being transparent and truthful is vital in crisis communication. BP failed at keeping the
public’s trust in this regard, which further damaged their reputation (Fearn-Banks, 2017).
This resulted in the public taking action: from public protests, clean-up efforts, and
demands for action from the government and BP.
BP P.R. – Press Releases
‘“We are determined to do everything in our power to contain this oil spill and resolve
the situation as rapidly, safely and effectively as possible,” said Group Chief Executive
Tony Hayward. “We have assembled and are now deploying world-class facilities,
resources and expertise, and can call on more if needed. There should be no doubt of
our resolve to limit the escape of oil and protect the marine and coastal environments
from its effects.’
As part of its planning and approval requirement prior to offshore activity, the area was
evaluated for use of dispersants and the plans approved by the US Coast Guard which
has now given the go-ahead for their use.”
-BP Press Office
April 22, 2010
BP P.R. – Long Term Use of Dispersants
From reporters to locals, it was apparent that BP did not hold to their word of ceasing the
use of dispersants, despite the EPA’s warning and clear detrimental effects on the
environment and people. This shows how despite the willingness to solve the problem, BP
did not make public safety their first priority.
“As I traveled across the Gulf, residents and cleanup workers complained bitterly of health problems they
linked to oil and dispersants, including respiratory ailments, heart-palpitations, headaches, memory loss,
skin rashes, and bloody sores.”
“More than a month after BP capped the Deepwater Horizon well and claimed it had stopped spraying
dispersants, I reported on a cache of Corexit containers stored by an Alabama public dock that locals said was
still being used to spray on oil patches close to shore.”
-Kristner, R. (June 10, 2019).
Remember the BP Oil Spill?
BP P.R. – Public Opinion
“We believe Corexit 9500 is very safe,” a Nalco chemist insisted after the blowout happened. BP agreed. It
even bought a third of the global Corexit supply at the time.
EPA regulators grew concerned that the Corexit spray might put first responders and residents at risk. The
agency ordered BP to switch to a less toxic dispersant early in the spill, but BP resisted, saying the
chemicals were an effective way to fight the growing oil disaster.”
-Kristner, R.(June 10, 2019).
Remember the BP Oil Spill?
EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson stated backing down after that claim was one of the
toughest decisions she ever made. More oil was still pouring ashore at this time, and the
dispersant were proving effective at that moment.
BP P.R. Advertisement
BP faced a lot of criticism,
especially from the locals
directly affected and
environmentalists.
BP made an effort to produce
ads in the following years that
showed their commitment to
the continued cleanup of their
mistake.
(Left) The New York Times
June 2, 2010
(Right) National
April/March 2011
Images: The Huffington Post
BP P.R. – Press Releases
‘”I understand people want a simple answer about why this happened
and who is to blame. The honest truth is that this is a complex
accident, caused by an unprecedented combination of failures,” said
Chief Executive Tony Hayward. “A number of companies are involved,
including BP, and it is simply too early – and not up to us –
to say who is at fault.’”
-BP Press Release Office
May 24, 2010
Big Oil Panty Protest
Advertised on Facebook, the peaceful
‘Big Oil Panty Protest’ was put together
by Louisiana locals Karen Hopkins and
Darlene Eschete. Its goal was to draw
attention to the cover-up, clean-up and
health-effects of the oil spill experience
by Gulf residents.
There was also a website made on all
their efforts and collaborations for this
crisis.
Kristner
2011, April 29
[Facebook p
ost
“Well if your
panties are in
a wad and y
want to unw
ou
ad them to sy
mbolize this
protest, brin
g them on o
ver to the “B
PANTY PROT
IG OIL
EST” to be h
e
ld on the be
Grand Isle on
ach in
April 23, 2011
in conjunctio
with other e
n
vents to be h
eld the same
(see below).
day
We shall “EX
POSE” them
when we tak
a
ll
e off our pan
ties (not reall
just a figure
yof speech!) a
nd hold a “M
ock
Burning” in
protest!
Remember
the burning
of bras in the
to call attenti
1960’s
on to the fem
inist movem
Well, they re
ent?
ally didn’t bu
rn their bras
day, but man
that
y women did
remove their
and burn th
bras
em whereve
r they were in
support of th
e movemen
t. So, if you c
attend, I ask
an’t
you take a p
a
ir of panties
hold a Mock
and
burning in so
lidarity at 5:0
p.m. on Apri
0
l 23, 2011 to sh
ow your sup
port!”
]
Big Oil Panty Protest
grandislebpsgroundzero.blogspot.com
Public Opinion
Ryan Lambert, VP of Louisiana Charter Boat Association, stated the local oil industry, Plaquemines Parish,
would take care of them if anything happened – and he believed them:
“Well, they lied. About everything. They didn’t take care of the problem,
and they’re not taking care of us. Guys in my business weren’t made whole.
A lot of them are starving. And now that the national media is gone,
BP couldn’t care less.
“I’m sick of it, and I’m telling the whole country about it —
on national TV, in magazines and in front of Congress.”
-Kristner
2011, April 11
This is evidence that there was a lack of accountability from various oil companies, not just BP, all
revealed by the actions- or lack of- during this crisis.
05
Management
Long Terms Effects
The Consequences
BP took “financial accountability” by paying the lawsuits towards multiple local
governments.
However, the effects of the oil spill were not solvable with just money, and
consequences are still seen today:
● Damaged ecology, wildlife habitats, and many marine life species..
● Poisoning of fish, affecting their sight and cardiac function
● Increased levels of anxiety, depression, and respiratory issues in Gulf of Mexico
residents.
● People involved in cleanup experienced worse health: skin irritation, lungs,
kidneys, and heart functions.
(Kristner, 2019; Kristner, 2011; Environmental Protection Agency; Gulf Spill Restoration.)
“The world’s energy systems also
encodes social and technical risk.
The world energy outlook for 2040
projects that coal, oil, and natural
gas and nuclear are going to
continue to predominate, but these
are non-renewable technologies
and they are very hazardous for
human health and the
environment.”
~Majia Nadesan, 2019
TedTalk: Global Catastrophes and
the Risk Society
06
Suggestions
Improving Crisis Communication
Geography & Gulf of Mexico
Due to BP’s poor management in detecting
and preventing this crisis, there was little
damage control when communicating with
the public, and recovery from the oil spill was
never fully achieved.
One preventive measure BP could have taken
was considering the risky location of the
Macondo drill. The currents, eddies, and winds
in the gulf affected the speed in which the oil
spread.
Image: https://cdn.britannica.com/13/144913-050-B931EC84/Map-oil-spill-effects-Deepwater-Horizon-explosion-April-20-2010.jpg
Planning & Response
A focus on these things could have aided in
creating effective management:



A BP crisis plan involving contractors and
organizations to prevent crisis.
Initial correspondence with agencies like
NOAA for cleanup strategies to plug well
hole up quickly.
Taking accountability in public relations in
a timely manner, to prevent:



Hollow promises and inaccurate information.
Confusion and further damage to reputation.
A clear communication of the direction of
cleanup efforts instead of media
information control.
07
References
Bellisario, D. P. (n.d.) Case Study: BP Oil Spill. Penn State: College of Communications.
https://www.pagecentertraining.psu.edu/public-relations-ethics/ethics-in-crisis-management/lesson-1-pro
minent-ethical-issues-in-crisis-situations/case-study-tbd/
BP Press Office. (2010, May 24). BP briefs US government on initial perspectives of Deepwater Horizon
investigation – focus is on seven control mechanisms.
https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/news-and-insights/press-releases/bp-briefs-us-government-on-i
nitial-perspectives-of-deepwater-horizon-investigation-focus-is-on-seven-control-mechanisms.html
BP Press Office. (2010, April 22). BP initiates response to Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/news-and-insights/press-releases/bp-initiates-response-to-gulf-o
f-mexico-oil-spill.html
Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Deepwater Horizon – BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill. EPA.
https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/deepwater-horizon-bp-gulf-mexico-oil-spill
Fearn-Banks, K. (2017). Crisis communication: A casebook approach. New York: Routledge
Gulf Spill Restoration. (n.d.). Chapter 2: Incident Overview – Gulf Spill Restoration. National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration.
https://www.google.com/search?q=bp+oil+spill+analysis&rlz=1C1CHBF_enUS925US925&oq=bp+oil+spill&aqs
=chrome.0.69i59l2j69i57j0j46j0l2j69i61.2129j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
References
Kristner, R. (2011, April 29). Gulf Women Show Their Panties and Fight for Their Future. HuffPost.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/gulf-women-show-their-pan_b_855366
Kristner, R. (2019, June 10). Remember the BP Oil Spill? These Cleanup Workers Are Still
Suffering After 9 Years. Mother Jones.
https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2019/06/remember-the-bp-oil-spill-these-cleanup-workers-ar
e-still-suffering-after-9-years/
Nadesan, M. (2019). TedTalk: Global catastrophes and the risk society. TedTalk.

Nadesan, M. (2021). Lecture 2: Introducing Idea of Crisis- Historical Analysis of Crisis [Powerpoint slides].
Hugh Downs School of Human Communication, Arizona State University.
Staff Working Papers. (n.d.) Stopping the spill: The five-month effort to kill the macondo well. National
Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling.
https://permanent.access.gpo.gov/gpo2428/Containment%20Working%20Paper%2011%2022%2010.pdf
United States District Court. (n.d.) Oilspill – Old current developments. United States District Court:
Eastern district of Louisiana. https://www.laed.uscourts.gov/content/oilspill-old-current-developments
08
Partner Feedback
For Sydney Permenter
Crisis Case Analysis
Pacific Gas and Electric:
California’s largest utility system
and California wildfires
By Amber Searles
Introduction
• There can be many things one thinks of when you think of
wildfires. I know I don’t automatically think of the utility
system. However, through my assessment I discovered
that utilities could play a big part in the cause of fires. This
has also been something that has happened more than
once and has its own political and public relation aspects
beyond the issue at large. I have chosen to center my
analysis around the state’s biggest utility, Pacific Gas and
Electric which according to my analysis has had numerous
lawsuits and even had to declare bankruptcy. Pacific Gas
and Electric has had a long history of bad practices in
relation to its handling of its part in California’s wildfires.
• Picture Reference: Tower 27/222. Utility experts have been
incredulous that Pacific Gas & Electric let it stand for so
long
Points
For
Consideration
Pacific Gas and Electric knew that it had
faulty equipment and towers this is a known
fact that is hard to ignore and has played a
part in a varied number of wildfires including
the worst one yet in California’s history The
Camp Fire but to play devils advocate, so to
speak, let’s change the narrative slightly and
speak about inverse condemnation according
to an article by Nikolewski Rob (2018) from
the San Diego Tribune “The saying doesn’t
exactly roll off the tongue but under inverse
condemnation, as interpreted by California
courts, utilities can be held liable for
damages caused by wildfires linked to their
equipment — even if the power companies
followed accepted safety procedures”. Is this
a fair law from an assessment standpoint I
think it sounds like a no-win situation even if
they are trying to do better. The company, the
stakeholders, and potentially the consumers
lose out if rates must increase.
In view, some of the example public relation crisis
cases and the results of some of these cases one must
wonder how PG&E was able to continue to operate at
all after being determined to be the cause or apart of
so many dangerous incidents. Might it have
something to do with being one of the largest utility
companies in California and having a certain amount
of political pull as a result of this? In an article by
Fang Lee with The Intercept(2019) he speaks to just
this issue” PG&E’s political sway is legendary in
California. The company has enlisted top lobbyists
and retained a veritable who’s who of influential
former lawmakers and politicians on its payroll
including former San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown.
During the gubernatorial race last year, the company
donated over $200,000 to the campaign of Gov.
Gavin Newsom.” This amount of political sway is
scary as one considers the number of other companies
that would have had to close or could not recover
from their crisis and PG&E has headed several
during the time their utility company has been in
business.
Picture from the town
of Hinkley California
• This is the location of one of the first PG&E crisis
in which the residents were exposed to
contaminated water
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
History of
Pacific Gas
and Electric
To speak more in depth about the Pacific Gas and Electric
and its history of bad practices, one must go back quite a
few years to 1950 in which the town of Hinkley
California was exposed to contaminated water due to
PG&E dumping about 370 million gallons of chromiumtainted wastewater. PG&E ended up settling due in part to
the tenacity of one Erin Brockovich who helped get the
largest direct settlement of its kind 333million whose life
and the towns story ended up being portrayed in a movie
staring Julia Roberts. This town still is suffering effects
from this crisis.
Another example is the Rancho Cordova Gas Explosion:
2008. This incident on Christmas eve was linked to an
incorrect pipe repair and caused the death of one person
as well as injuring five others. PG&E paid a 38 million
dollar fine as well as a settlement.
All paraphrased information is taken from the same
article:
https://www.abc10.com/article/news/the-events-thatcontributed-to-pges-growth-to-a-near-monopoly/103b7badd6e-8eea-4ae3-a935-8628ba98b87e

Moving forward in the timeline is another explosion
incident the San Bruno Pipeline Explosion: 2010 no
punishment resulted until 2017 in which PG&E was
sentenced to community service, 3 million in fines and
five years probation for the incident that caused the
death of eight people with 12 others injured. This is
the first instance of PG&E getting a more severe
punishment following an incident.
Last up is the Camp fire which resulted in the deaths of 85
people and mostly destroyed the town of Paradise. This
fire is considered one of the deadliest fires yet in
California’s history and it was determined by SoCal fire
agency that PG&E started it due to faulty equipment,
negligence, and so forth.They plead guilty on all accounts
and have been paying out numerous settlements and fines
since this fire occurred,.

To highlight these are just a brief timeline of the
incidents of PG&E to give a background of their bad
practices. It is a troubling insight into a company
which provides power to most of California seeming
to get by with no true accountability. There are
several more incidents which began after the 1950
incident if you would like to learn more about it
please reference the website to the left.
Crisis
Management

In referring to the text by Fearn-banks
pgs. 18-19 to analyze which theory’s
PG&E might be utilizing regarding
crisis management. I have concluded
that they are utilizing a combination of
apologia and image restoration theory
though as they have at times employed
some of the best P.R. firms in the
country. Their long history of mistakes
does tend to shine through. However, in
this next article you can see that they are
trying to move into the recovery period
regarding the narrative with the press
and the consumers by Penn
Ivan,et,al.”(2019) PG&E executives
acknowledge that the company has made
mistakes.“ We have heard the calls for
change and are committed to taking
action by focusing our resources on
reducing risk and improving safety
throughout our system,” John Simon,
PG&E’s interim chief executive said in a
recent statement. “ This statement was
taken from a news article upon further
analysis it was found to be found from a
press release their media room put out

This excerpt seems to signify or
highlight an attempt at trying to restore
image. However, the beginning press
releases were more focused on the
apologia aspect once they had to plead
guilty in the campfire incident as
referenced in this apology made during
that time here is just a brief except
located in their press news releases on
their website. Our equipment started the
fire that destroyed the towns of Paradise
and Concow and severely burned
Magalia and other parts of Butte County.
That fire took the lives of 85 people.
Thousands lost their homes and
businesses, and many others were forced
to evacuate under horrific
circumstances. I wish there were some
way to take back what happened or take
away the pain of those who’ve suffered.
But I know there’s not. What I can say is
this: First, PG&E will never forget the
Camp fire and all that it took from this
region. We remain deeply, deeply sorry
for the terrible devastation we have
caused.” This is a clear apology and
accepting of culpability of their faulty
equipment and their knowledge of it.
Crisis Management Continued
I want to touch on the image restoration aspect of
this crisis management. This is a highly influential
profitable utility company. In my analysis and
research of these press releases, it was filled with
the good deeds or charity works they do. Everything
from scholarships to donations to good causes. It
seemed like an endless bombardment as I was
searching for information on their website. In our
readings, it talked about this being a key component
to building goodwill with stakeholders and
consumers so that in times of crisis they remember
the good done. So, this definitely seems like one
crisis tool they employ fiercely in attempt to not
have the focus be so much on the mistakes they
have made.
I have attempted to show you some of the history of
PG&E in order to illustrate the longstanding errors this
company has made and the apology’s they have made
with out necessarily fixing the issues. I focused more on
the Camp fire incident because this was the first
incident where the company has been charged with
homicides as well as other charges. No one was
arrested for this and the only thing that happened was
fines and settlements to the families. In doing my
research, another key component I found lacking in the
crisis management aspect was the lack of forums or
ways for the consumer to speak to the company or even
find informative interviews from the company. I even
hopped on their Facebook and there was not really any
interactive components this was also true of their
website. This did not seem like a valuable aspect to
improving community relations or at image restoration
on a more intimate level.
Crisis Management
Recommendations
• One of the foremost things that came up was faulty equipment or unsafe
practices. This is highlighted in the history portion and throughout the
presentation. Another recommendation would be examining all protocols,
practices, guidelines and most assuredly doing a company wide equipment
check and replacing anything not in working order and updating any practices
as needed. What I also thought of was a crisis communication plan and the
company’s disregard of it. Having a good communication plans, an over all
one and then various ones for the respective cities and counties and making
sure these are not just documents but are fluid and implanted and employees
receive any necessary training for them. It is oblivious from the company’s
record that the company is not doing the preventive aspect of the crisis model.
If you as a company are aware of potential crisis and are not practicing best
practices, the containment and recovery process is going to be a recuring
process and there is potentially not going to be much of number 5 learning. So,
doing preventive measures and utilizing a plan to improve company policies
and public relations to finally actually be in a learning process.
• Another aspect would be utilizing the excellence theory two-way symmetrical
model to improve business client relations. Banks Kathleen pgs. 23-24. By
creating some form of open dialogue that way even though the utility company
is massive the client feels like their voice is getting heard. This however would
need to include follow up on the clients’ questions and concerns in both the
social media platforms and via their website. Creating forums or interviews
that assist with the client needs. If not, it might become potentially an image
restoration theory. The most important P.R. and crisis management to
recommend I believe in this case is reaching a standard of best practices for the
befit of the company, the stakeholders, and the consumers and the general
public overall.
• A broken insulator underneath a PG&E
transmission line outside the town of Pulga,
California 20 mins from the town of Paradise
which was destroyed by fire. This became
known as the Camp fire which ended up being
one of the deadliest to date which PG&E
ended up taking a plea.
• This picture was pulled from the New York
times article: How PG&E ignored California Fire
Risks in Favor of Profits
References

Rob Nikolewski Aug. 15, 2018 6 AM PT Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close ex.
“Study Says California Utilities Should Only Pay for Wildfires If They Are Negligent.” Tribune, 15 Aug.
2018, www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/energy-green/sd-fi-wharton-wildfires-20180815story.html.

Fang, Lee. “PG&E Spent Billions on Lobbyists and PR Instead of Upgrades.” The Intercept, 11
Oct. 2019, theintercept.com/2019/10/11/pge-power-shutdown-california/.
Banks Kathleen(pg18-19)Crisis Communication A casebook approach
Penn, Ivan, et al. “California Wildfires: How PG&E Ignored Risks in Favor of Profits.” The New York
Times, The New York Times, 19 Mar. 2019, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/03/18/business/pgecalifornia-wildfires.html.
Banks Kathleen (pg. 23-24)Crisis Communication A casebook approach
Shannon, Chelsea. “The History of PG&E’s Problems.” abc10.Com, 11 Mar. 2019,
www.abc10.com/article/news/the-events-that-contributed-to-pges-growth-to-a-near-monopoly/103b7badd6e-8eea-4ae3-a935-8628ba98b87e.
Johnson, Bill. “PG&E Statement on Company’s Guilty Plea Related to 2018 Camp Fire: PG&E.”
PG&E Statement on Company’s Guilty Plea Related to 2018 Camp Fire | PG&E, 16 June 2020,
www.pge.com/en/about/newsroom/newsdetails/index.page?title=20200616_pge_statement_on_compa
nys_guilty_plea_related_to_2018_camp_fire.

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