series of essay questions pertaining to John Chasteen’s Born in Blood and Fire text and Profesor Cañedo’s video lectures on the Falkland Islands War. In parts 1-5, choose one of 3 essay questions. In part 6, you will compose an essay devoted to the Falkland Islands War, and that part is worth 15 points. For parts 1-5, you must use the Born in Blood and Fire text.
Part 1 (chapters 1-2): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas.
(1) Two political ideologies took center stage in the history of Latin America. First, classic liberalism emerged in the nineteenth century. Nationalism, a later invention, emerged in response to the first. In which ways have liberalism and nationalism alternated in ascendancy during the past 150 years in Latin America?
(2) Briefly compare the differences between the nonsedentary, semisedentary, and fully sedentary groups that inhabited the Americas before the Encounter? How would you describe their relationship to the land? How did it vary from group to group?
(3) How did the conquest of Brazil differ from the conquest of Spanish America? Be sure to include discussion of the following cultures: Tupi, Aztec, Mayas, and Incas.
Part 2 (chapters 3-4): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas.
(1) If the Spanish and Portuguese colonial system was a brutal one in which native Americans and peoples of African descent were oppressed, why did colonialism last for so long?
(2) Discuss the causes of the independence movements in order to pinpoint the reason for the collapse of Spanish and Portuguese rule in most of Latin America.
(3) Who would you identify as the main leaders behind the independence movements in Spanish America? How did they manage to get “the people” behind their cause?
Part 3 (chapters 5-6): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas.
(1) Who was the caudillo, and what ideas did he represent? Provide an example of a well-known caudillo in Latin America.
(2) Briefly compare liberal ideas versus conservative ideas within the context of Latin America. Which ideas do you think predominated in postcolonial Latin America?
(3) War is usually regarded as a catalyst for change; was this the case in Latin America? Use examples to illustrate your point.
Part 4 (chapters 7-8): choose one of the following 4 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas.
(1) How did the relationship between the United States and Latin America change during the nineteenth century (the 1800s, not the 1900s)?
(2) Who was Porfirio Díaz? Describe his ruling style. Be sure to include the following terms in your discussion: rurales, hacendados, pan o el palo, cientificos
(3) Who were Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo? How did they represent the peasants and indigenous people who fought in the Mexican Revolution? Be sure to include in your discussion a commentary on revolutionary ideals in Rivera’s Detroit Industry mural series.
(4) Who was Getúlio Vargas? What were the main characteristics of his Estado Novo?
Part 5 (chapters 9-11): choose one of the following 3 questions and write a detailed response to it in Canvas.
(1) What is populism? Provide at least two examples that demonstrate how populism functioned in Latin America.
(2) Why did the military stage a coup d’état in Brazil? Once in power, how did they rule the country?
(3) Who were the neoliberals, and what did they want for Latin America?
Part 6 (Falkland Islands War): compose a reflection essay in Canvas and consider any of the following questions in your response: How is it possible that two nations that are political allies of the United States, Argentina and Great Britain, could have gone to war over such a desolate location in the South Atlantic Ocean? Do you agree with the British government’s position that they went to war to protect British subjects? Or do you agree with Argentina’s historical claims over the islands they call Las Malvinas? How effective was United States foreign policy over this episode? Do you think President Reagan and Secretary of State Haig could have handled things much differently? What lessons can other nations, including the United States, learn from this episode in world history and politics?
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