New York Medical College Outdoor Air Pollutants Presentation

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ENVM – 6009 – AIR POLLUTION FINAL PRESENTATION
Since your Final Presentation is due in a little over a month and a half, it’s a good
time to introduce what’s required so that you can begin to prepare. (To avoid
confusion, there’s also a Final Exam that will be given late this semester
covering the 12 lectures of this course. It will be similar to the Quiz, but longer
and more comprehensive. I’ll be giving you a helpful Study Guide on that a little
later on).
The Final Presentation will be a PowerPoint slide deck prepared by you which
will account for about 30% of your final grade. Your presentation should be about
12-15 slides (don’t make it much longer than that). You must also record an oral
presentation to go along with your slides. Yes, I want to hear your voices and to
speak intelligently about your topic. Public speaking skills are important to all
professionals. I understand that some of you have little or no public speaking
experience, and, for some, English is not your first language but that’s fine, I will
not be grading you on your English nor your presentation skills; I just want you to
get the experience.
I want each of you to prepare and record your presentation and submit it to me
with the slides. You can choose how you make the presentation. If you can
record your presentation through PowerPoint and e-mail it to me that would be
great. Modern PowerPoint versions allow voice recording. Other software can be
also be used, just make sure it works. A YouTube presentation is fine. If you
can’t seem to find a way to record it, you can present it to me live over Zoom.
Regardless, I everyone needs to e-mail me their slides.
As far as the topics are concerned, you can select any issue regarding Air
Pollution and public health. Review the lecture slides of this class for ideas. If
you have a preconceived notion regarding a particular issue, a presentation on
evidence to the contrary may make for some enlightening research. The
following are some suggestions for general topics:







Asthma
• Carcinogenesis
Mobile source idling
• Regulating air toxics
Cap and trade
• Siting an odorous source
Acid rain
• An air toxic’s effects on a special population
Asbestos
• Specific indoor air pollutant
Emission credits
• Urban air quality
Mobile source emission reduction (better cars or fewer miles)
Again, you need not limit yourself to this list, it’s just for guidance. Also, these
are just general topics, your presentation needs to be much more specific (e.g.
“The Effects of Mobile Source Emissions on Asthma in School Children”). You
have many options.
In your 12-15 slide presentation (10-15 minutes to present), discuss:




Some background about the issue, including why the issue is important
and how it affects specific health issues for the public. Don’t overdo the
background slides or do a “data dump” of what you learned in the
course; just 3 or 4 slides reviewing the basics is sufficient.
Describe some potential options to solve the problem, such as, but not
limited to, reducing emissions and/or health risks
Describe some advantages and disadvantages of each potential solution
(remember, all semester a theme has been that there are no easy
solutions to air pollution issues without some type of cost or other effects)
Your preferred solution (or several) and why you believe it is best.
Grades for the Final presentation will be based mainly on the deep knowledge
you show about your chosen issue, your research, and the advantages and
disadvantages of potential solutions. I don’t want you to merely repeat what you
learned in class (what was presented in a given lecture), but show a deeper
knowledge. Slides should be professional. Do not plagiarize and don’t re-use a
presentation that you may have used for another course and change it minimally
to apply to this course. Some of you may have work experience in Air Pollution.
Please do not repeat whatever research you may have done in the past for this
presentation, pick a different topic. Doing so will increase your breadth of
knowledge and will only benefit you in the long run.
I will be posting examples of what’s constituted a “Solid” and “Outstanding”
presentation in the past (please don’t use these exact topics) as separate
announcements.
Very important: your presentation should not be a “data dump” of all you know
about a topic. While I want knowledge, what’s much more important is critical
thinking (hence my suggestion that you challenge any pre-conceived notion you
may have).
If I’m not clear on something in your presentation, I’ll email you follow-up
questions within about 5 days of your submittal. Responding to any questions I
have may raise your grade. Please respond with your answers within about 5
days as well.
I would like all of you to send me your chosen topic (no explanation, just the topic
title) by Tuesday, March 30 so that I can be sure that no two people are doing
the exact same topic. First come, first served. Preparing an outline or an
approach before preparing the slides is a good idea. You can always submit the
outline to me if you need any advise. Your final presentation must be submitted
by 11:59 pm EDT on Tuesday, May 3rd. As always, feel free to contact me if you
have any questions or concerns.
I really want you to enjoy this.
HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXHAUST FUMES FROM DIESEL
COMBUSTION ENGINES ON WORKERS
BY
 Diesel
exhaust fumes are fumes produced
from diesel combustion engines.
 Diesel combustion engine is an engine which
uses the heat of compression to initiate
ignition and burn the fuel that has been
injected into the combustion chamber.
 Diesel
engines are used to power
equipments and machines such as mining
machines , construction machines ,
transportation machines , manufacturing
machines ,agricultural machines ,maritime
machines , etc
 The
diesel fuel burnt by these machineries
are released out to the environment in the
form of gases.
 The fumes contain gaseous and particulate
matter such as acetaldehyde , acrolein ,
benzene , formaldehyde ,polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon ,etc
 Exposure
to this toxic fumes occurs through
inhalation ,ingestion and dermal contact .
 Workers more likely to be exposed are
miners , construction workers , heavy
equipment operators ,oil and gas workers ,
truck drivers , bus maintenance garage
workers ,farm workers ,marine workers ,etc.
 Workers exposed have a high risk of suffering
from lung cancer, bladder cancer ,irritation
of the eye or nose ,respiratory disease ,etc.
 Studies
was conducted by California office of
Environmental Health Hazard Assessment ( OEHHA)
.
 Analyzed more than 30 studies of people who
worked around diesel equipments.
 The studies showed these workers were more likely
to develop lung cancer than workers who were not
exposed to the emission.
 Evidence that links long term exposure of diesel
exhaust fumes to lung cancer .
 Addressing
the health effects of diesel
exhaust fumes is important because as
workers breathe the toxic gas which is
suspended in the air ,they are drawn into the
lungs , this gas contain particulates which
are small enough to penetrate deep into the
lungs ,where they affect human health .
 NIOSH estimates that approximately
1.35million workers are occupationally
exposed to combustion products of diesel
fuel in approximately 80,000 work places in
the United States.
Alternate fuel – use of other fuel such as natural
gas ,propane ,methanol ,ethanol ,electricity ,etc
. Use of alternate fuel can reduce workers
exposure to the diesel particulate matter .
 Advantages – reduce workers exposure to
particulate matter , reduce emissions of harmful
pollutant , oil dependency reduction , promote
the use of green energy ,economical compared
to diesel fuel .
 Disadvantage – Machines may not be compatible
with alternate fuel , not readily available
compared to diesel fuel , may require
installation of new parts .

 Installation
of proper and required air
pollution control equipment such as oxidizer
, gas absorption ,electrostatic precipitation
,etc,for diesel engines in an enclosed
building ,facility or plant .
 Advantages – may trap toxic gases before
been released into the environment , high
control efficiency ,reliable .
 Disadvantages – some APC operation may be
very expensive , some APC may not be
effective in trapping diesel particulate
matter ,
 Installation
of catalytic converters and diesel
particulate filters on mobile diesel engines.
 Advantages – reduce emission of toxic gas ,
improve engine efficiency , require little
maintenance .
 Disadvantage – DPF requires periodic
maintenance to clean out non combustible
such as soot , may require special mounting
or brackets , expensive to acquire and
potential to plug
 Provide
appropriate ventilation system for
engines in enclosed space or buildings.
 Advantages – reduce gas concentration level
in the air ,helps in the escape of undesirable
smells and fume ,enhance in the movement
of warm air and cooler air .
 Disadvantage – expensive installation ,design
and equipments , does not completely
remove contaminants , requires regular
cleaning ,inspection and maintenance , the
system deteriorate over the years due to
contaminants build up in the system .
 Reducing
the idling time for unloading trucks
, emergency vehicles and school buses .
 Advantage – reduce emission of toxic gases ,
reduce wear and tear ,reduce maintenance
cost .
 Disadvantage – older engines may require
longer idling time in other to reach the
required operating temperature.
 Proper
PPE
 Advantage – reduce further exposure ,
protect employees
 Disadvantage – employees may be less cooperative in participating , require
continuous employee training of proper
donning of PPE
 Effective
administrative control
 Advantage – it reduces workers exposure ,
promote effective workers rotation .
 Disadvantages – does not eliminate workers
exposure , may reduce productivity
 Use
of alternate fuel will be the best suitable
solution because , it will enhance in reduce
emission of carbon monoxide ,particulate
matter ,unburned hydrocarbons and
sulphates.
 Help reduce the risk of global warming
 Cheap source of energy compared to diesel
fuel
 Promote energy dependency and security
 Reduce toxic gas emission and improve
health
 Highly renewable
 Plog,A
& Quinlan,P (2012). Fundamental of
industrial hygiene . 6th edition. National
Safety Council .
 Pacific Biodiesel. Biodiesel benefits-why use
biodiesel ? Retrieved from
http://www.biodiesel.com/biodiesel/benefit
s/
 Canadian Center for Occupational Health and
Safety . Retrieved from
http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/preventio
n/ventilation/introduction.html#_1_2
Occupational Safety &Health Administration.
Diesel exhaust. Retrieved from
https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/dieselexhaust/inde
x.html .
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
.Technologies diesel retrofit device . Retrieved
from
http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/technologies/r
etrofits.htm
 Office of Environmental Health Hazard
Assessment .Air toxicology and epidemiology .
Retrieved from
http://oehha.ca.gov/public_info/facts/dieselfac
ts.html

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