History Discussion


Question 1) You have been meeting natives, colonizers, and now Mexicans (also known as Californios) who made an impact and left their mark in California. You may notice that many of our street names, cities, monuments are named after these individuals. Briefly identify one of these individuals and provide the impact they made in California. There are so many so please try not to answer the same one. 2) Was Mexican California better/worse/the same as Spanish California? Compare and contrast. …………………………..Information;

Week #3 SummaryUnder unstable Mexican rule from 1821 to 1846, California became more globally connected and Pacific-oriented. The secularization of the missions had the unintended consequence of linking the province to the Pacific Basin and America’s Atlantic seaboard through the hide-and-tallow trade, which grew rapidly as former Church lands were acquired by rancheros, who dominated a patriarchal society.•Throughout the Mexican period, Americans began arriving in California by sea and via overland trails blazed by fur trappers and followed by immigrant parties.Miscalculations in timing a Sierra crossing could have horrific results, as seen in the Donner party tragedy that included incidents of cannibalism. As more Americans arrived, California’s Pacific Basin ties increased. Yankee coastal shippers, mainly headquartered in San Diego and Santa Barbara, carried hides and tallow that they exchanged for trade goods at ports along the Oregon coast and across the Pacific in Peru and Chile.From Latin America their vessels often sailed to Honolulu, where sandalwood and other products were acquired for trade in porcelains, silks, and teas in Canton, China.The heavily laden ships then completed the Pacific circuit, returning to California ports. Amongthers, Santa Barbara China trader Alpheus B. Thompson prospered greatly from this commerce.••Meanwhile New England merchant shippers carried manufactures aboard cargo vessels – virtual floating department stores – around Cape Horn for sale in California and Oregon.whaling port in the Pacific and later in the world.As the hide-and-tallow trade declined in the 1840s, San Francisco began its ascent into the leadingThe famed Charles Wilkes maritime expedition of 1838–42 demonstrated the growing interest of the U.S. government in California and the Pacific Basin. An American takeover of the province was in the making.

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Govt. & Politics in Mexican CA
• Framers of the Federal Constitution of the
United Mexican States
• The Mexican Constitution of 1824
• As the power of the Mexican governors and
the Franciscan missionaries weakened, the
real authority in California gravitated into the
hands of a small group of ranchero families,
mostly California-born
The Secularization Problem
• The question: Who was to profit from the
acquisition of the mission lands and herds?
• Rancheros argument: the missions possess all
the fertile lands
• The Missionaries argument: the mission
Indians were not ready for secularization
• Lakisamni Yokuts named Estanislao – leader of
a large pan-Indian band in the San Joaquin
The First Governors of CA
• The first governor of California under the
Mexican republican constitution – Jose Maria
• Lieutenant Colonel Manuel Victoria, a
vigorous opponent of secularization and a
stern believer in the virtues of military
• General Jose Figueroa, governor from early in
1833 until his death in 1835
The Heyday of the Ranchero
• Throughout the Mexican period, the most
substantial economic activity was cattle
raising, and the chief commercial products
were hides and tallow for export
• There were about 20 private rancho land
grants during the Spanish regime, and about
500 during the Mexican period, of which the
great majority were made after secularization
• Women also became landowners and
administrators, receiving about 13% of the
ranchos granted by the Mexican government
• On the typical California rancho there were
between 20 and several hundred Indian
workers, perhaps 4000 in all
• The rancho economy, like those of the
missions and pueblos, contributed to the
continuing destruction of California Indian
Young Native American rancho worker. Indian ranch hands were known
for their horse riding and roping skills
Mounted vaqueros at Mission San Jose, from Frederick William Beechey,
Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific (1831)
Unidentified artist, Costume de la Haute Californie and Dame de Monterey
(1837). These hand-colored lithographs from the voyage of Abel Du PetitThouars capture the provincial dress of two proud Californios
The Lugo family on their rancho in southern California in the 1880s
The Fandango, a romanticized view of life on a California rancho,
painted by Charles Christian Nahl in 1873

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