“Fundamentals of Scientific Management” Document Analysis Basic Instructions: You will complete a primary document analysis during the semester. A primary document is a document contemporary to the time period under study. The document may have been written by a participant or observer for a particular event or it may be an interpretation or analysis of a problem. Primary documents are often rich in the evidence needed to understand an historical event or situation. Historians use primary sources to create their own interpretation of the past. An historian’s work is a secondary source document.
These assignments have varying due dates based on the date we cover the particular subjects in class. Due dates are listed next to the document title on CougarView as well as on the course outline and reading schedule. The assignments are due prior to the start of the class for which they are assigned. After I have graded your assignment you will have the opportunity to review my feedback on your work. Your work will be returned to you through the same link on CougarView. A rubric to explain how document analysis assignments are graded is found at the end of these instructions. Please note that grade penalties apply for late or incorrect submissions. Format: Your document analysis must be typed and double-spaced with standard margins and 12 point font size. The pages should be numbered and the text of your analysis, not including the heading or citations, should be at least 500 words. For my convenience, your analysis must be saved as either a Microsoft Word document (doc, docx, rtf files) or in PDF format. The filename for your paper should be your first and last name. You will turn in your assignment by uploading it to the Assignments dropbox under the Assessments menu of the course CougarView page. If you have any questions about uploading your analysis, please contact me prior to the assignment due date. The paper you submit should be written as an essay not as a series of questions and answers. Typically, Chicago Style formatting uses a title page. For this paper you only need a heading at the top of the first page. The heading should be formatted as below with your name and the due date in the upper left hand corner. The title should be centered as shown. Please note that the titles of books such as The Jungle and Hiroshima must be italicized. Newspapers, magazine and journal names should also be italicized. Speeches, essays and magazine articles are placed in quotation marks. Follow the style in the heading of the document you are using. Headings should not be placed in the header of your paper. Your name and the title should not appear on every page of your paper. Example of a correct headingJamie Gumb
February 4, 2021 Document Analysis
“Address to the Louisville Convention” (1883) Frederick Douglass
Research and Documentation: The first question for every document is to identify the author and place the document in its historical context. You need to find out who wrote the document and why they wrote it. What was its intended purpose and why was it relevant to what was happening in the U.S. at that time? Why was this author qualified to comment on this topic? Did the document cause a stir or have an impact? In identifying the author, you should not attempt to recount their life history. Include only information that is relevant to their authorship of the document. Noting that Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin or that he served in the Illinois legislature is not relevant to his authorship of “The Gettysburg Address.” That he was President of the United States during the Civil War is relevant to this document. These questions will require you to research the author and document either through the Internet or, believe it or not, by using a book. For example, your textbook is an excellent source, if you take the time to read it. If you research through the Internet be very careful in choosing your source. Not all Internet sites are reputable nor are they appropriate for this assignment. Wikipedia is a good example of a website that does not meet academic standards – so, DO NOT, I repeat, DO NOT ever use Wikipedia as a source for an academic paper. Answers.com is another example of a poor website for academic research. A good guide for evaluating websites may be found on the Cornell University Library website. It is also good to use more than one source. This ensures that you have adequately covered the subject. You are required to use outside research for your paper, you are also required to document where you obtained your information. You must use footnotes to correctly cite your sources. The footnote style that you must use is Chicago Style citation. Examples of proper footnotes may be found below. You may also find examples on the Chicago Manual of Style website. Please note that all research used in your paper must be cited with footnotes. Do not make the mistake of only citing direct quotes. Any information that is not common knowledge must be properly footnoted. Any direct quotations from the document that are used in your analysis must also be properly footnoted. The document source is found at the end of every document. Quotations should not stand alone as a single sentence and they should never exceed three lines of text in your paper. You do not have to use quotations at all but if you do they must be placed in context to the question and should be relevant to your point. An example of a properly cited quote is as follows: – The author makes the point that in 1879, “[a]n attempt was made by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs…to show by tables and figures that these Indians were not starving at the time of their flight from Indian Territory.”¹ – Note that there is an introduction to the quote to indicate who said it, brackets at the beginning of the quote to indicate a change in capitalization from the original, and the period at the end of the sentence is placed inside both the quote marks and the superscript footnote number. Superscript footnote numbers are placed at the end of the sentence with the information they cite. The citation is placed at the bottom of the same page. Most word processing programs have a menu item for inserting footnotes. For example in the latest version of Microsoft Word, place the cursor at the end of the text where you want to put the footnote. Click on the “Reference” tab and then click “Insert Footnote.” This will create the superscript footnote number at the end of the sentence and also create a space at the bottom of the page for the footnote. The numbers must run sequentially throughout the paper and are not repeated. Word does this for you automatically. If you want to cite information from a source that you have already referenced, you must repeat the citation with the next footnote number. Examples of proper footnotes are listed below. As noted, this style of citation comes from the Chicago Manual of Style. If you have any questions about a proper citation please see me in advance of the due date for the paper. ——— Examples of proper footnote citations 1. Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor (New York: Harper and Row, 1881), 92-102.
2. Peter Ifland, “The History of the Sextant,” The University of Coimbra, accessed February 2, 2021, http://www.mat.uc.pt/~helios/Mestre/Novemb00/H61iflan.htm. 3. James L. Roark, et al., The American Promise: A History of the United States, vol. 2: from 1865, value ed., 7th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2016), 749-750.
4. Erin A. Smith, ‘“Jesus, My Pal”: Reading and Religion in Middlebrow America,” Canadian Review of American Studies 37, no. 2 (2007): 147-181, doi: 10.3138/cras.37.2.147.
Note that the first citation is an example of the citation for one of the documents. The proper citation for each document is found as the source note at the end of the document itself. Copy it exactly as written. This is necessary if you use direct quotes or information from the document. They must be cited!
The second citation is an example from a website. Not all websites will have a listed author. In that case, simply leave off the author name. Every website should have a page title and the name of the website or organization. You must also list the exact web address and the date you accessed it. I should be able to follow that address and find the same website where you obtained the information used in your paper.
The third citation is for the textbook. Any book that you reference should be cited in the same manner. At the end of the citation are the page numbers in the book where you found your information. This should be limited to a few pages. Do not list a wide range of page numbers such as an entire chapter. As with the web address, I should be able to follow the page numbers and find the information you obtained.
The fourth citation is a journal article that comes from the Galileo online database. This uses the same citation as a paper copy of the article except for the addition of the doi number. This indicates that it comes from an online database. Do not list the url from the webpage. Since the database is behind a login, there is not a stable url. Any url that you list must directly connect back to your source.
All citations must be accurate for where you obtained the information. A false citation is plagiarism. If, for example, you list a book as source, you must have used a physical copy of the book. If you used an online version or a website summary, you must have the url or other identifying information so that the source can be followed.
As with other forms of citation, a list of the sources used in the paper must follow at the end of the paper. In Chicago Style this is called a Bibliography rather than Works Cited or Sources. Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style website to see how a bibliography must be formatted. All of the sources cited must be in the bibliography. Likewise, there should not be sources listed in the bibliography that are not cited with a footnote in the paper.
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“Fundamentals of Scientific Management” (1919)
By Frederick Winslow Taylor
Questions: Who was Frederick Winslow Taylor and why did he write this document? Based on
your research, how did Taylor use time-motion studies to implement his system of Scientific
Management? What were the advantages of Scientific Management for employers and for
workers? Would you feel more productive working according to these principles? What is
“soldiering” and how was it incompatible with scientific management? (Note that soldiering has
a different meaning here than is found in the dictionary). Are the interests of the employer and
employee really the same? Were there any flaws in Taylor’s plan to increase efficiency in the
The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the
employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.
The words “maximum prosperity” are used, in their broad sense, to mean not only large
dividends for the company or owner, but the development of every branch of the business to its
highest state of excellence, so that the prosperity may be permanent.
In the same way maximum prosperity for each employ, means not only higher wages
than are usually received by men of his class, but, of more importance still, it also means the
development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency, so that he may be able to do;
generally speaking, the highest grade of work for which his natural abilities fit him, and it further
means giving him, when possible, this class of work to do.
It would seem to be so self-evident that maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled
with maximum prosperity for the employee, ought to be the two leading objects of management,
that even to state this fact should be unnecessary. And yet there is no question that, throughout
the industrial world, a large part of the organization of employers, as well as employees, is for
war rather than for peace, and that perhaps the majority on either side do not believe that it is
possible so to arrange their mutual relations that their interests become identical.
The majority of these men believe that the fundamental interests of employees and
employers are necessarily antagonistic. Scientific management, on the contrary, has for its very
foundation the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that
prosperity for the employer cannot exist through a long term of years unless it is accompanied by
prosperity for the employee and vice versa; and that it is possible to give the workman what he
most wants-high wages-and the employer what he wants-a low labor cost-for his manufactures.
It is hoped that some at least of those who do not sympathize with each of these objects
may be led to modify their views; that some employers, whose attitude toward their workmen
has been that of trying to get the largest amount of work out of them for the smallest possible
wages, may be led to see that a more liberal policy toward their men will pay them better; and
that some of those workmen who begrudge a fair and even a large profit to their employers, and
who feel that all of the fruits of their labor should belong to them, and that those for whom they
work and the capital invested in the business are entitled to little or nothing, may be led to
modify these views.
No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest
prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency; that is,
when he is turning out his largest daily output.
The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working together. To
illustrate: if you and your workman have become so skillful that you and he together are making
two pairs of shoes in a day, while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair, it
is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes you can pay your workman much higher wages
than your competitor who produces only one pair of shoes is able to pay his man, and that there
will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor.
In the case of a more complicated manufacturing establishment, it should also be
perfectly clear that the greatest permanent prosperity for the workman, coupled with the greatest
prosperity for the employer, can be brought about only when the work of the establishment is
done with the smallest combined expenditure of human effort, plus nature’s resources, plus the
cost for the use of capital in the shape of machines, buildings, etc. Or, to state the same thing in a
different way: that the greatest prosperity can exist only as the result of the greatest possible
productivity of the men and machines of the establishment-that is, when each man and each
machine are turning out the largest possible output; because unless your men and your machines
are daily turning out more work than others around you, it is clear that competition will prevent
your paying higher wages to your workmen than are paid to those of your competitor. And what
is true as to the possibility of paying high wages in the case of two companies competing close
beside one another is also true as to whole districts of the country and even as to nations which
are in competition. In a word, that maximum prosperity can exist only as the result of maximum
productivity. Later in this paper illustrations will be given of several companies which are
earning large dividends and at the same time paying from 30 percent to 100 percent higher wages
to their men than are paid to similar men immediately around them, and with whose employers
they are in competition. These illustrations will cover different types of work, from the most
elementary to the most complicated.
If the above reasoning is correct, it follows that the most important object of both the
workmen and the management should be the training and development of each individual in the
establishment, so that he can do (at his fastest pace and with the maximum of efficiency) the
highest class of work for which his natural abilities fit him.
These principles appear to be so self-evident that many men may think it almost childish
to state them. Let us, however, turn to the facts, as they actually exist in this country and in
England. The English and American peoples are the greatest sportsmen in the world. Whenever
an American workman plays baseball, or an English workman plays cricket, it is safe to say that
he strains every nerve to secure victory for his side. He does his very best to make the largest
possible number of runs. The universal sentiment is so strong that any man who fails to give out
all there is in him in sport is branded as a “quitter,” and treated with contempt by those who are
When the same workman returns to work on the following day, instead of using every
effort to turn out the largest possible amount of work, in a majority of the cases this man
deliberately plans to do as little as he safely can-to turn out far less work than he is well able to
do – in many instances to do not more than one-third to one-half of a proper day’s work. And in
fact if he were to do his best to turn out his largest possible day’s work, he would be abused by
his fellow-workers for so doing, even more than if he had proved himself a “quitter” in sport.
Underworking, that is, deliberately working slowly so as to avoid doing a full day’s work,
“soldiering,” as it is called in this country…, is almost universal in industrial establishments, and
prevails also to a large extent in the building trades; and the writer asserts without fear of
contradiction that this constitutes the greatest evil with which the working-people of both
England and America are now afflicted.
It will be shown later in this paper that doing away with slow working and “soldiering” in
all its forms and so arranging the relations between employer and employ, that each workman
will work to his very best advantage and at his best speed, accompanied by the intimate
cooperation with the management and the help (which the workman should receive) from the
management, would result on the average in nearly doubling the output of each man and each
machine. What other reforms, among those which are being discussed by these two nations,
could do as much toward promoting prosperity, toward the diminution of poverty, and the
alleviation of suffering? America and England have been recently agitated over such subjects as
the tariff, the control of the large corporations on the one hand, and of hereditary power on the
other hand, and over various more or less socialistic proposals for taxation, etc. On these subjects
both peoples have been profoundly stirred, and yet hardly a voice has been raised to call
attention to this vastly greater and more important subject of “soldiering,” which directly and
powerfully affects the wages, the prosperity, and the life of almost every working-man, and also
quite as much the prosperity of every industrial establishment in the nation.
The elimination of “soldiering” and of the several causes of slow working would so lower
the cost of production that both our home and foreign markets would be greatly enlarged, and we
could compete on more than even terms with our rivals. It would remove one of the fundamental
causes for dull times, for lack of employment, and for poverty, and therefore would have a more
permanent and far-reaching effect upon these misfortunes than any of the curative remedies that
are now being used to soften their consequences. It would insure higher wages and make shorter
working hours and better working and home conditions possible.
Why is it, then, in the face of the self-evident fact that maximum prosperity can exist only
as the result of the determined effort of each workman to turn out each day his largest possible
day’s work, that the great majority of our men are deliberately doing just the opposite, and that
even when the men have the best of intentions their work is in most cases far from efficient?
There are three causes for this condition, which may be briefly summarized as:
First. The fallacy, which has from time immemorial been almost universal among workmen, that
a material increase in the output of each man or each machine in the trade would result in the end
in throwing a large number of men out of work.
Second. The defective systems of management which are in common use, and which make it
necessary for each workman to soldier, or work slowly, in order that he may protect his own best
Third. The inefficient rule-of-thumb methods, which are still almost universal in all trades, and
in practicing which our workmen waste a large part of their effort…
It is not here claimed that any single panacea exists for all of the troubles of the workingpeople or of employers. As long as some people are born lazy or inefficient, and others are born
greedy and brutal, as long as vice and crime are with us, just so long will a certain amount of
poverty, misery, and unhappiness be with us also. No system of management, no single
expedient within the control of any man or any set of men can insure continuous prosperity to
either workmen or employers. Prosperity depends upon so many factors entirely beyond the
control of any one set of men, any state, or even anyone country, that certain periods will
inevitably come when both sides must suffer, more or less. It is claimed, however, that under
scientific management the intermediate periods will be far more prosperous, far happier, and
more free from discord and dissension. And also, that the periods will be fewer, shorter and the
suffering less. And this will be particularly true in any one town, any one section of the country,
or any one state which first substitutes the principles of scientific management for the rule of
That these principles are certain to come into general use practically throughout the
civilized world, sooner or later, the writer is profoundly convinced, and the sooner they come the
better for all the people.
Source Note: Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper
Bros., 1911), 5-29.
Time and motion studies were the
basis for Taylor’s theories.
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