FAU Publics and Counterpublics public deliberation Paper

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Choose 4! of the following questions and write about 2 to 3 paragraphs for eachAsen argues that we should not define counterpublics by equating them with particular people, places, or topics. What does he mean? According to Asen, what is “counter” about counterpublics?Squires argues for three different types of marginal publics. What are the three types she describes? How do they differ?What does Tierney mean when she writes about the “creation” of a social problem? How do counterpublics contribute to the “creation” of social problems?According to Dawson, what forces led to the decline of a Black public sphere in the US? How does McKee’s view of the Black public differ?What do we learn from medical activists about how the technical sphere can erode the public sphere? How can activists counter his erosion?Fraser, Ryan and others have argued that the norms of public sphere favor a “masculine” style of argument. What do they mean by this? How are women’s voices trivialized (McKee, Chapter 1) in public fora?Ryan argues that women entered public life as private citizens when they were denied access to the public sphere. What does she mean? What does she see as the disadvantages of this private encroachment on the public?How has the rise of electronic communication and social media affected the development and operation of publics and counterpublics in the contemporary American public sphere?How has our understanding of the public sphere changed as a result of examining actually-existing publics and counterpublics?How have counterpublics challenged and expanded the discursive norms and practices of the public sphere?

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It can be argued that
What is public deliberation and how does it affect the public sphere?
-Bohmann concluded that deliberation is a process of communicating reasons in order to resolve
problematic situations that are not solvable without interpersonal cooperation or coordination.
-Bohmann addresses the negative side of deliberation which is cultural diversity and political
inequalities which cause lack the ability to deliberate. This can better be referred to as social
complexity. Social Complexity comes hand in hand with cultural diversity and political
inequality which limits the ability to deliberate fairly.
-When individuals deliberate publicly when making a decision it shows the importance of caring
for other citizens and coming to a mutual understanding.
– Public deliberation is meant to be non-tyrannus, non corrosive and have no structural
advantages or disadvantages. Bohman expresses that having equality is the only way to have a
fair process of deliberation and democracy.
– it allows for peoples ideas and concerns to be heard within the public sphere.
-“The justice and virtue effect of public deliberation on democratic outcomes would
appear to be reasonably likely outcomes of democracy, at least if public deliberation takes place
in a political context free of fear and intimidation and ridicule and a wide variety of points of
view can be expressed and heard in public forum” (247 Christiano).
-The Deliberation process has affected the public sphere. Deliberation is negatively impacted by
cultural diversity and political inequality, which Impair the ability to deliberate, according to
Bohmann.
– This can also be called social complexity. Cultural diversity and political inequality are often
associated with social complexity and are factors that hinder fair deliberations. Deliberation can
be avoided by a procedural approach, which is when the procedures indicated in advance are
followed, can also minimize the chances of this happening.
-When people deliberate in a public setting it will help individuals feel more at ease with the
decision that is being made because it shows that people are coming to a mutual understanding of
others opinions.The public deliberation process is meant to be non-repressive, non-corrosive, and
neutral.
How does technical and personal threatens the public sphere?(media)

Threats in the public sphere begin with way the threat is used in the publics sphere.It can
be through social exchanges, discourses, or a political debate.
Take into consideration the conditions and effects, if the situation is local or global
Public sphere is a concept that will never go away
interactions that people have with others through platforms like social media, or
any time that people interact outside the comfort of their own homes.

Numerous platforms to tell your opinion

public sphere is degenerating in the sense that the general public is less
interested in using it for good (having intelligent conversations, being respectful
to peers, and trying to determine which information is true and false), and more
interested in using it for personal gain or to push a specific group’s agenda at the
expense of others.
contradictory opinion that the media does not care about the quality of the public
sphere and the information shared but their profit or monetary benefit.

When we talk about threats in the public sphere, we have to discuss how the threats are
used in the public sphere.
Enlightenment and the relationship to the public sphere
● Roots in enlightenment (17th-18th century)
● Equality (equal worth), Justice (equal treatment), Liberty (control over own lives),
Comfort (acess to basic material goods)
● Started in 1607/ 1620
Counter publics
“The Public is a kind of social totality Its most common sense is that of the people in
general.A public can also be a second thing a concrete audience, a crowd witnessing
Itself in visible space, as with a theatrical public. Such a public also has a sense of
Totality, bounded by the event or by the shared physical space.”( Warner 413)
-The public sphere makes up the publics and counterpublics relating to an array of versatile
ideas like democracy and political theory, argumentation and deliberation, citizenship
and civic engagement, media ecologies and the press, and institutions and power
relations.
-In addition to the problems of the public-private divide that is a characteristic of the
public sphere, this text analyzes the role of bodies and emotions in forming and
operating publics and counterpublics as well as the role of media technologies in
sustaining and expanding critical publicity as well as the difficulty of excising knowledge
claims from power relations.
In this environment, multiple public spheres, publics, and counterpublics continue to
coexist. As deliberating bodies become increasingly transnational, visuality, ecology,
and digitality become more significant.
– Nancy Fraiser discusses useful prompts us to think about challenges to dominant
discourses
Political participation in the bourgeois public sphere is characterized by its openness
and accessibility. This would ultimately promote the development of public opinion and,
eventually, consensus about the common good.
Spheres of argument-
Goodnight doesn’t refer to it as “The Public Sphere” because he’s talking about different
types of arguments. Goodnights’ three different spheres are personal, technical, and
public.
-everyone should be able to understand public reason through common knowledge.
– In addition, he discusses high culture and its effects on the public sphere and how he
believes the public sphere is becoming increasingly profit-driven.
-Goodnight looks at argument as a process of discovery and resolution in which
argument is tested against social knowledge and the implications are explored.
Argumentation is broken down into personal, technical, and societal spheres.
-Personal arguments:It is imperative that these arguments be a reflection of what is
resonating among people, and that each opponent adheres to some kind of unspoken
rule “Whatever else characterizes an argument, to be recognizable as such, a
statement, a work of art, even an inchoate feeling must partake in the creative
resolution and the resolute creation of uncertainty” (Goodnight 199). This states how a
argument should help resolve the issue.
Techinical: A technical argument can have to do with facts that are proven
Public – The absence of the public means that there can be no “sides” or disagreement
for anyone to disagree over.
– Goodnight believes that deliberation should be continued and practiced more
otherwise, it will become lost within society
Deliberation in public is described by Goodnight as the process of uncovering,
assessing, and resolving problems of social concern through arguments of citizens.
Public sphere – a chain of different forms of interaction
The enlightenment 1607-1620

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Public Deliberation and Sphere

alternative civil societies

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