Write a Matlab code to apply a highpass laplacian filter on Lab8_1.jpg image.Write a Matlab code to apply ideal highpass filter on Lab8_1.jpg image for D0=100Apply FFT2, IFFT2, lowpass Gaussian filter, and highpass laplacian filter onLab8_3.jpg image.Please see the attached document for more detailsMake sure to include brief :IntroductionObjectivesConclusion
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Module 2 Lab Exercise
Introduction to MATLAB Digital Image Processing
1. Lab Objectives:
Computing of the Fourier Transform for an image and displaying the
Designing of filters in the frequency domain (lowpass and highpass filters)
and apply them to images.
2.1 Fourier Transform:
The Fourier transform is a representation of an image as a sum of complex
exponentials of varying magnitudes, frequencies, and phases. The Fourier
transform plays a critical role in a broad range of image processing applications,
including enhancement, analysis, restoration, and compression.
Working with the Fourier transform on a computer usually involves a form of
the transform known as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). There are
two principal reasons for using this form:
1) The input and output of the DFT are both discrete, which makes
it convenient for computer manipulations.
2) There is a fast algorithm for computing the DFT known as the fast
Fourier transform (FFT).
The DFT is usually defined for a discrete function f(x,y) that is nonzero only
finite region 0 ≤ x ≤ M-1 and 0 ≤ y ≤ N-1.
The general idea is that the image (f(x,y) of size M x N) will be represented in the
frequency domain (F(u,v)). The equation for the two-dimensional discrete Fourier
The concept behind the Fourier transform is that any waveform that can be
constructed using a sum of sine and cosine waves of different frequencies. The
exponential in the above formula can be expanded into sins and cosines with the
variables u and v determining these frequencies
The inverse of the above discrete Fourier transform is given by the following
Thus, if we have F(u,v), we can obtain the corresponding image (f(x,y)) using
the inverse discrete Fourier transform.
Things to note about the discrete Fourier transform are the following:
The value of the transform at the origin of the frequency domain, at
F(0,0), is called the DC component
F(0,0) is equal to MN times the average value of f(x,y) .
In MATLAB, F(0,0) is actually F(1,1) because array indices in MATLAB
start at 1 rather than 0.
The values of the Fourier transform are complex, meaning they have
real and imaginary parts. The imaginary parts are represented by i,
which is the square root of -1
We visually analyze a Fourier transform by computing a Fourier
spectrum (the magnitude of F(u,v)) and display it as an image. o
The Fourier spectrum is symmetric about the center.
The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is a fast algorithm for computing
the discrete Fourier transform.
MATLAB has three functions to compute the DFT:
1. fft – for one dimension (useful for audio)
2. fft2 – for two dimensions (useful for images)
3. fftn – for n dimensions
MATLAB has three functions that compute the inverse DFT:
The function fftshift is used to shift the zero-frequency component to center
of spectrum. Note that it is so important to apply a logarithmic
transformation function on the spectral image before displaying so as
spectral details are efficiently displayed.
How does the Discrete Fourier Transform relate to Spatial
The following convolution theorem shows an interesting relationship between
the spatial domain and frequency domain:
The symbol “*” indicates convolution of the two functions. The important thing to
extract out of this is that the multiplication of two Fourier transforms corresponds
to the convolution of the associated functions in the spatial domain.
Basic Steps in DFT Filtering
The following summarize the basic steps in DFT Filtering
1. Obtain the Fourier
2. Generate a filter function, H
3. Multiply the transform by the
4. Compute the inverse DFT:
5. Obtain the real part of the inverse FFT of
2.2 Filters in the Frequency Domain
Based on the property that multiplying the FFT of two functions from the spatial
domain produces the convolution of those functions, you can use Fourier
transforms as a fast convolution on large images. As a note, on small images, it
is faster to work in the spatial domain.
However, you can also create filters directly in the frequency domain. There are
three commonly discussed filters in the frequency domain:
Lowpass filters, sometimes known as smoothing filters
Highpass filters, sometimes known as sharpening filters
A Lowpass filter attenuates high frequencies and retains low frequencies
A Highpass filter blocks all frequencies smaller than D o and leaves the others
Bandpass filters are a combination of both lowpass and highpass filters. They
attenuate all frequencies smaller than a frequency Do and higher than a
frequency D1, while the frequencies between the two cut-offs remain in the
resulting output image.
create a blurred (or smoothed) image attenuate the high frequencies and leave
the low frequencies of the Fourier transform relatively unchanged
Three main lowpass filters are discussed in Digital Image Processing Using
Ideal lowpass filter (ILPF): The simplest low pass filter that cutoff all high
frequency components of the Fourier transform that are at the distance greater
than distance D0 from the center.
Where D0 is a specified nonnegative quantity (cutoff frequency), and D(u,v) is
the distance from point (u,v) to the center of the frequency rectangle. The center
of frequency rectangle is (M/2,N/2)
The distance from any point (u,v) to the center D(u,v) of the Fourier transform is
M and N are sizes of the image.
2. Butterworth lowpass filter (BLPF): of order n, and with cutoff frequency at
a distance D0 from the center.
3. Gaussian lowpass filter (GLPF)
The GLPF did not achieve as much smoothing as the BLPF of order 2 for the
same value of cutoff frequency
The corresponding formulas and visual representations of these filters are shown
in the table below. In the formulae, D0 is a specified nonnegative number (cutoff
frequency). D(u,v) is the distance from point (u,v) to the center of the filter.
Butterworth low pass filter (BLPF) of order n.
sharpen (or shows the edges of) an image attenuate the low frequencies and
leave the high frequencies of the Fourier transform relatively unchanged
The highpass filter (Hhp) is often represented by its relationship to the lowpass
Because highpass filters can be created in relationship to lowpass filters, the
following table shows the three corresponding highpass filters by their visual
1. Ideal highpass filter (IHPF)
2. Butterworth highpass filter (BHPF)
3. Gaussian highpass filter (GHPF)
In Matlab, to get lowpass filter we use this command:
H = fspecial(‘gaussian’,HSIZE,SIGMA)
– Returns a rotationally symmetric Gaussian lowpass filter of size HSIZE with
standard deviation SIGMA (positive).
– HSIZE can be a vector specifying the number of rows and columns in H or
scalar, in which case H is a square matrix.
– The default HSIZE is [3 3], the default SIGMA is 0.5.
In Matlab, to get highpass laplacian filter we use this command:
H = fspecial(‘laplacian’,ALPHA)
– Returns a 3-by-3 filter approximating the shape of the two-dimensional
– The parameter ALPHA controls the shape of the Laplacian and must be in the
range 0.0 to 1.0.
– The default ALPHA is 0.2
Exercise1: Apply FFT and IFFT.
%ex1.m close all clear
% 1) Displaying the Fourier Spectrum:
FI=fft2(I); %(DFT) get the frequency for the image
FI_S=abs(fftshift(FI));%Shift zero-frequency component
to center of img_spectrum.
%imagesc: the data is scaled to use the full colormap.
Exercise2: Apply lowpass filter.
%ex2.m close all clear
%1.Obtain the Fourier transform
LP=fspecial(‘gaussian’,[11 11],1.3); %2.Generate a LowPass filter FLP=fft2(LP,size(I,1),size(I,2)); %3. Filter
padding LP_OUT=FLP.*FI; %4.Multiply the transform by the
filter I_OUT_LP=ifft2(LP_OUT); %5.inverse DFT
I_OUT_LP=real(I_OUT_LP); %6.Obtain the real part(Output)
Spectrum’), axis off
Exercise3: Apply Ideal lowpass filter.
%ex3.m close all clear
a=imread(‘Lab8_2.tif’); [M N]=size(a); a=im2double(a);
%1.Obtain the Fourier transform
% Set up range of variables. u = 0:(M-1); %0255 v = 0:(N-1);%0-255
% center (u,v) = (M/2,N/2)
% Compute the indices for use in meshgrid
idx = find(u > M/2);% indices 130-255
u(idx) = u(idx) – M;
idy = find(v > N/2);
v(idy) = v(idy) – N;
%set up the meshgrid arrays needed for
% computing the required distances.
[U, V] = meshgrid(u, v);
% Compute the distances D(U, V).
disp(‘IDEAL LOW PASS FILTERING IN FREQUENCY
DOMAIN’); D0=input(‘Enter the cutoff distance==>’);
% Begin filter computations.
H = double(D 30
1) Write a Matlab code to apply highpass laplacian filter on Lab8_1.jpg image.
2) Write a Matlab code to apply ideal highpass filter on Lab8_1.jpg image for D0=100
3) Apply FFT2, IFFT2, lowpass Gaussian filter, and highpass laplacian filter
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