City Colleges of Chicago Queer Feminist Movements Essay

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Here is the instruction: This is the assigned Unit that need to be summaries ; The first unit is called Early to Late 20th Century Feminist Movements and the second unit is Third Wave and Queer Feminist Movements. The file of the book where the units are located is attached below.
your annotation needs to be at least 300 words (approximately one page that is double-spaced), and it needs to include all three of the categories below (e.g., summarize, assess, and reflect). Try to answer as many questions below as possible. For your first annotation, you may not be able to answer “How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography?” in the “Assess” section. Answer what is possible. Be sure to make your annotation three paragraphs (e.g., summarize, assess, and reflect) that are each have their first line indented half an inch. Do not add a space between the three paragraphs. 

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Introduction to Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies
Introduction to Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies
Introduction to Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies
MILIANN KANG, DONOVAN LESSARD, AND LAURA
HESTON
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST LIBRARIES
AMHERST, MA
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies by Miliann Kang, Donovan Lessard, Laura Heston, Sonny Nordmarken is
licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
Contents
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies ………………………………………………………………………. x
About This Book ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xi
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiii
Acknowledgements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xvi
Unit I: An Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies: Grounding Theoretical Frameworks and
Concepts ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Critical Introduction to the Field ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Theorizing Lived Experiences ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Identity Terms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
Conceptualizing Structures of Power …………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Social Constructionism …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
Intersectionality ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
References: Unit I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
Unit II: Challenging Binary Systems and Constructions of Difference ………………………………………….. 47
Introduction: Binary Systems ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
The Sex/Gender/Sexuality System ……………………………………………………………………………………… 49
Gender and Sex – Transgender and Intersex ……………………………………………………………………….. 51
Sexualities ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
Masculinities …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
Race ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
Class ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
Alternatives to Binary Systems ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
References: Unit II …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
Unit III: Institutions, Culture, and Structures ……………………………………………………………………………. 67
Introduction: Institutions, Cultures, and Structures …………………………………………………………….. 68
The Family ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
Media …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
Medicine, Health, and Reproductive Justice ……………………………………………………………………….. 82
The State, Law, and the Prison System ………………………………………………………………………………. 87
Intersecting Institutions Case Study: The Struggle to End Gendered Violence and Violence Against
Women …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
References: Unit III …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
Unit IV: Gender and Work in the Global Economy ……………………………………………………………………… 97
Introduction: Gender and Work in the Global Economy ………………………………………………………… 98
Gender and Work in the US ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
Gender and the US Welfare State ……………………………………………………………………………………. 103
Transnational Production and Globalization ……………………………………………………………………… 105
Racialized, Gendered, and Sexualized Labor in the Global Economy ……………………………………. 109
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
References: Unit IV ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
Unit V: Historical and Contemporary Feminist Social Movements ……………………………………………… 113
Introduction: Feminist Movements …………………………………………………………………………………… 114
19th Century Feminist Movements ………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
Early to Late 20th Century Feminist Movements ……………………………………………………………….. 121
Third Wave and Queer Feminist Movements …………………………………………………………………….. 128
References: Unit V …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
Introduction to Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies
Miliann Kang, Donovan Lessard, Laura Heston, and Sonny
Nordmarken
University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
Amherst, Massachusetts
x
About This Book
Copyright © 2017 Miliann Kang, Donovan Lessard, Laura Heston, and Sonny
Nordmarken
University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
Amherst, Massachusetts
Cover Image: “Resistance and Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies” by Sonny
Nordmarken is licensed under CC BY SA 3.0 and contains the following images:
“Nekima Levy-Pounds at Black Lives Matter march, April 2015.jpg” by Fibonacci
Blue is licensed under CC BY 2.0
“Black Lives Matter in Minneapolis” by Fibonacci Blue is licensed under CC BY
2.0
“Women’s March – Washington DC 2017 (31771083973).jpg” by S. Pakhrin is
licensed under CC BY 2.0
“Women’s march against Donald Trump (32406735346).jpg” by Fibonacci Blue is
licensed under CC BY 2.0
“Baiga adivasi in protest walk, India.jpg” by Ekta Parishad is licensed under CC
BY SA 3.0
Electronic edition available online at: https://press.rebus.community/introwgss/
xi
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
ISBN-13: 978-1-945764-02-8
xii
Table of Contents
Unit I: An Introduction to Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies: Grounding Theoretical
Frameworks and Concepts
1. Critical Introduction to the Field
2. Theorizing Lived Experiences
3. Identity Terms
4. Conceptualizing Structures of Power
5. Social Constructionism
6. Intersectionality
References: Unit I
Unit II: Challenging Binary Systems and
Constructions of Difference
7. Introduction: Binary Systems
8. Theorizing Sex/Gender/Sexuality
9. Gender and Sex – Transgender and Intersex
10. Sexualities
11. Masculinities
12. Race
13. Class
14. Alternatives to Binary Systems
References: Unit II
xiii
Unit III: Institutions, Culture, and Structures
15. Introduction: Institutions, Cultures, and Structures
16. Family
17. Media
18. Medicine, Health, and Reproductive Justice
19. State, Laws, and Prisons
20. Intersecting Institutions Case Study: The Struggle to End Gendered Violence
and Violence Against
Women
References: Unit III
Unit IV: Gender and Work in the Global Economy
21. Introduction: Gender, Work and Globalization
22. Gender and Work in the US
23. Gender and the US Welfare State
24. Transnational Production and Globalization
25. Racialized, Gendered, and Sexualized Labor in the Global Economy
References: Unit IV
Unit V: Historical and Contemporary Feminist
Social Movements
26. Introduction: Feminist Movements
27. 19th Century Feminist Movements
28. Early to Late 20th Century Feminist Movements
29. Third Wave and Queer Feminist Movements
xiv
References: Unit V
xv
Acknowledgements
Thanks to the Open Education Initiative Grant at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, for
providing the funds and support to develop this on-line textbook. It was originally produced for the
course, Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies 187: Gender, Sexuality, and Culture, an introductory-level,
general education, large-lecture course which has reached upwards of 600 students per academic year.
Co-authored by Associate Professor Miliann Kang and graduate teaching assistants Donovan Lessard,
Laura Heston and Sonny Nordmarken, this text draws on the collaborative teaching efforts over many
years in the department of Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies. Many faculty, staff, teaching assistants
and students have developed the course and generously shared teaching materials.
In the past, we have assigned textbooks which cost approximately $75 per book. Many students,
including the many non-traditional and working-class students this course attracts, experienced
financial hardship in purchasing required texts. In addition, the intersectional and interdisciplinary
content of this class is unique and we felt could not be found in any single existing textbook currently on
the market. In recent years, we have attempted to utilize e-reserves for assigned course readings. While
more accessible, students and faculty agree that this approach tends to lack the structure found in a
textbook, as it is difficult for students to complete all assigned readings and they are missing an
anchoring reference text. This situation prompted us to begin drafting this text that we would combine
with other assigned readings and make available as an open source textbook.
While this textbook draws from and engages with the interdisciplinary field of WGSS, it reflects the
disciplinary expertise of the four authors, who are all sociologists. We recognize this as both a strength
and weakness of the text, as it provides a strong sociological approach but does not cover the entire
range of work in the field.
We would like to continue the practice of having our students access online content available in the
University Learning Commons free of charge and hope this resource will be useful to anyone interested
in learning more about the rich, vibrant and important field of Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies.
xvi
UNIT I: AN INTRODUCTION TO
WOMEN, GENDER, SEXUALITY
STUDIES: GROUNDING THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORKS AND CONCEPTS
Critical Introduction to the Field
There was a time when it seemed all knowledge was produced by, about, and for men. This was true
from the physical and social sciences to the canons of music and literature. Looking from the angle of
mainstream education, studies, textbooks, and masterpieces were almost all authored by white men. It
was not uncommon for college students to complete entire courses reading only the work of white men
in their fields.
Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies (WGSS) is an interdisciplinary field that challenges the androcentric
production of knowledge. Androcentrism is the privileging of male- and masculine-centered ways of
understanding the world.
Alison Bechdel, a lesbian feminist comics artist, described what has come to be known as “the Bechdel Test,”
which demonstrates the androcentric perspective of a majority of feature-length films. Films only pass the Bechdel
Test if they 1) Feature two women characters, 2) Those two women characters talk to each other, and 3) They talk
to each other about something other than a man. Many people might be surprised to learn that a majority of films
do not pass this test! This demonstrates how androcentrism is pervasive in the film industry and results in malecentered films.
18
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Critical Introduction to the Field


Feminist frequency. (2009, December 7). The bechdel test for women in movies. Retrieved from
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bLF6sAAMb4s .
Feminist scholars argue that the common assumption that knowledge is produced by rational, impartial
(male) scientists often obscures the ways that scientists create knowledge through gendered, raced,
classed, and sexualized cultural perspectives (e.g., Scott 1991). Feminist scholars include biologists,
anthropologists, sociologists, historians, chemists, engineers, economists and researchers from just
about any identifiable department at a university. Disciplinary diversity among scholars in this field
facilitates communication across the disciplinary boundaries within the academy to more fully
understand the social world. This text offers a general introduction to the field of Women, Gender,
Sexuality Studies. As all authors of this textbook are trained both as sociologists and interdisciplinary
feminist scholars, we situate our framework, which is heavily shaped by a sociological lens, within
larger interdisciplinary feminist debates. We highlight some of the key areas in the field rather than
comprehensively covering every topic.
19
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
The Women’s Liberation Movement and Civil Rights Movement of the mid-20th Century called attention
to these conditions and aimed to address these absences in knowledge. Beginning in the 1970s,
universities across the United States instituted Women’s and Ethnic Studies departments (African
American Studies, Asian American Studies, Latin American Studies, Native American Studies, etc.) in
response to student protests and larger social movements. These departments reclaimed buried
histories and centered the knowledge production of marginalized groups. As white, middle-class,
heterosexual women had the greatest access to education and participation in Women’s Studies, early
incarnations of the field stressed their experiences and perspectives. In subsequent decades, studies
and contributions of women of color, immigrant women, women from the global south, poor and
working class women, and lesbian and queer women became integral to Women’s Studies. More
recently, analyses of disability, sexualities, masculinities, religion, science, gender diversity,
incarceration, indigeneity, and settler colonialism have become centered in the field. As a result of this
opening of the field to incorporate a wider range of experiences and objects of analysis, many Women’s
Studies department are now re-naming themselves “Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies”
departments.
Feminist scholars recognize the inextricable connection between the notions of gender and sexuality in
U.S. society, not only for women but also for men and people of all genders, across a broad expanse of
topics. In an introductory course, you can expect to learn about the impact of stringent beauty
standards produced in media and advertising, why childrearing by women may not be as natural as we
think, the history of the gendered division of labor and its continuing impact on the economic lives of
men and women, the unique health issues addressed by advocates of reproductive justice, the
connections between women working in factories in the global south and women consuming goods in
the United States, how sexual double-standards harm us all, the historical context for feminist
movements and where they are today, and much more.
More than a series of topics, Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies offers a way of seeing the world
differently. Scholars in this field make connections across institutional contexts (work, family, media,
law, the state), value the knowledge that comes from lived experiences, and attend to, rather than
ignore, marginalized identities and groups. Thanks to the important critiques of transnational, postcolonial, queer, trans and feminists of color, most contemporary WGSS scholars strive to see the world
through the lens of intersectionality. That is, they see systems of oppression working in concert rather
than separately. For instance, the way sexism is experienced depends not only on a person’s gender but
also on how the person experiences racism, economic inequality, ageism, and other forms of
marginalization within particular historical and cultural contexts.
Intersectionality can be challenging to understand. This video explains the intersectionality framework using the
example of gender-specific and race-specific anti-discrimination policies that failed to protect Black women.
Can you think of some other contexts in which people who are marginalized in multiple ways might be left out?
20
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
What are some things you can do to include them?
A Vimeo element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Critical Introduction to the Field


Peter Hopkins, Newcastle University. (2018, April 22). What is intersectionality?. Retrieved
from https://vimeo.com/263719865. Used with permission.
By recognizing the complexity of the social world, Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies advocates for
social change and provides insight into how this can be accomplished.
21
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
Theorizing Lived Experiences
You may have heard the phrase “the personal is political” at some point in your life. This phrase,
popularized by feminists in the 1960s, highlights the ways in which our personal experiences are
shaped by political, economic, and cultural forces within the context of history, institutions, and culture.
Socially-lived theorizing means creating feminist theories and knowledge from the actual day-to-day
experiences of groups of people who have traditionally been excluded from the production of academic
knowledge. A key element to feminist analysis is a commitment to the creation of knowledge grounded
in the experiences of people belonging to marginalized groups, including for example, women, people of
color, people in the Global South, immigrants, indigenous people, gay, lesbian, queer, and trans people,
poor and working-class people, and disabled people.
Feminist theorists and activists argue for theorizing beginning from the experiences of the marginalized
because people with less power and resources often experience the effects of oppressive social systems
in ways that members of dominant groups do not. From the “bottom” of a social system, participants
have knowledge of the power holders of that system as well as their own experiences, while the reverse
is rarely true. Therefore, their experiences allow for a more complete knowledge of the workings of
systems of power. For example, a story of the development of industry in the 19th century told from the
perspective of the owners of factories would emphasize capital accumulation and industrial progress.
However, the development of industry in the 19th century for immigrant workers meant working
sixteen-hour days to feed themselves and their families and fighting for employer recognition of trade
unions so that they could secure decent wages and the eight-hour work day. Depending on which pointof-view you begin with, you will have very different theories of how industrial capitalism developed, and
how it works today.
Feminism is not a single school of thought but encompasses diverse theories and analytical
perspectives—such as socialist feminist theories, radical sex feminist theories, black feminist theories,
queer feminist theories , transfeminist theories, feminist disability theories, and intersectional feminist
theories.
In the video below, “Barbie explains feminist theories,” Cristen, of “Ask Cristen,” defines feminisms generally as a
project that works for the “political, social, and economic equality of the sexes,” and suggests that different types of
feminist propose different sources of gender inequality and solutions. Cristen (with Barbie’s help) identifies and
defines 11 different types of feminism and the solutions they propose:
Liberal feminism
Marxist feminism
Radical feminism
Anti-porn feminism
22
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
Sex positive feminism
Separatist feminism
Cultural feminism
Womanism (intersectional feminism)
Postcolonial feminism
Ecofeminism
Girlie feminism
What types of feminism do Cristen and Barbie leave out of this list? Do you agree with how they characterize
these types of feminism? Which issues across these feminisms do you think are most important?
A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Theorizing Lived Experiences


Stuff Mom Never Told You – HowStuffWorks. (2016, March 3). Barbie Explains Feminist Theories | Radical,
Liberal, Black, etc. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3D_C-Nes60.
The common thread in all these feminist theories is the belief that knowledge is shaped by the political
and social context in which it is made (Scott 1991). Acknowledging that all knowledge is constructed by
individuals
inhabiting
particular
social
locations,
23
feminist
theorists
argue
that
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
reflexivity—understanding how one’s social position influences the ways that they understand the
world—is of utmost necessity when creating theory and knowledge. As people occupy particular social
locations in terms of race, class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, age, and ability, these multiple identities
in combination all at the same time shape their social experiences. At certain times, specific dimensions
of their identities may be more salient than at others, but at no time is anyone without multiple
identities. Thus, categories of identity are intersectional, influencing the experiences that individuals
have and the ways they see and understand the world around them.
In the United States, we often are taught to think that people are self-activating, self-actualizing
individuals. We repeatedly hear that everyone is unique and that everyone has an equal chance to make
something of themselves. While feminists also believe that people have agency—or the ability to
influence the direction of their lives—they also argue that an individual’s agency is limited or enhanced
by their social position. A powerful way to understand oneself and one’s multiple identities is to situate
one’s experiences within multiple levels of analysis—micro – (individual), meso- (group), macro(structural), and global. These levels of analysis offer different analytical approaches to understanding
a social phenomenon. Connecting personal experiences to larger, structural forces of race, gender,
ethnicity, class, sexuality, and ability allows for a more powerful understanding of how our own lives are
shaped by forces greater than ourselves, and how we might work to change these larger forces of
inequality. Like a microscope that is initially set on a view of the most minute parts of a cell, moving
back to see the whole of the cell, and then pulling one’s eye away from the microscope to see the whole
of the organism, these levels of analysis allow us to situate day-to-day experiences and phenomena
within broader, structural processes that shape whole populations. The micro level is that which we, as
individuals, live everyday—interacting with other people on the street, in the classroom, or while we are
at a party or a social gathering. Therefore, the micro-level is the level of analysis focused on individuals’
experiences. The meso level of analysis moves the microscope back, seeing how groups, communities
and organizations structure social life. A meso level-analysis might look at how churches shape gender
expectations for women, how schools teach students to become girls and boys, or how workplace
policies make gender transition and recognition either easier or harder for trans and gender
nonconforming workers. The macro level consists of government policies, programs, and institutions,
as well as ideologies and categories of identity. In this way, the macro level involves national power
structures as well as cultural ideas about different groups of people according to race, class, gender,
and sexuality spread through various national institutions, such as media, education and policy. Finally,
the global level of analysis includes transnational production, trade, and migration, global capitalism,
and transnational trade and law bodies (such as the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations,
the World Trade Organization)—larger transnational forces that bear upon our personal lives but that
we often ignore or fail to see.
How Macro Structures Impact People: Maquiladoras
Applying multiple levels of analysis, let’s look at the experiences of a Latina working in a maquiladora, a factory
24
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
on the border of the US and Mexico. These factories were built to take advantage of the difference in the price of
labor in these two countries. At the micro level, we can see the worker’s daily struggles to feed herself and her
family. We can see how exhausted she is from working every day for more than eight hours and then coming home
to care for herself and her family. Perhaps we could examine how she has developed a persistent cough or skin
problems from working with the chemicals in the factory and using water contaminated with run-off from the
factory she lives near. On the meso-level, we can see how the community that she lives within has been transformed
by the maquiladora, and how other women in her community face similar financial, health, and environmental
problems. We may also see how these women are organizing together to attempt to form a union that can press for
higher wages and benefits. Moving to the macro and global levels, we can situate these experiences within the
Mexican government’s participation within global and regional trade agreements such as the North American Free
Trade Act (NAFTA) and the Central American Free Trade Act (CAFTA) and their negative effects on environmental
regulations and labor laws, as well as the effects of global capitalist restructuring that has shifted production from
North America and Europe to Central and South America and Asia. For further discussion, see the textbook section
on globalization.
Recognizing how forces greater than ourselves operate in shaping the successes and failures we
typically attribute to individual decisions allows us see how inequalities are patterned by race, class,
gender, and sexuality—not just by individual decisions. Approaching these issues through multiple
levels of analysis—at the micro, meso, and macro/global levels—gives a more integrative and complete
understanding of both personal experience and the ways in which macro structures affect the people
who live within them. Through looking at labor in a maquiladora through multiple levels of analysis we
are able to connect what are experienced at the micro level as personal problems to macro economic,
cultural, and social problems. This not only gives us the ability to develop socially-lived theory, but also
allows us to organize with other people who feel similar effects from the same economic, cultural, and
social problems in order to challenge and change these problems.
25
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
Identity Terms
Language is political, hotly contested, always evolving, and deeply personal to each person who chooses
the terms with which to identify themselves. To demonstrate respect and awareness of these
complexities, it is important to be attentive to language and to honor and use individuals’ selfreferential terms (Farinas and Farinas 2015). Below are some common identity terms and their
meanings. This discussion is not meant to be definitive or prescriptive but rather aims to highlight the
stakes of language and the debates and context surrounding these terms, and to assist in understanding
terms that frequently come up in classroom discussions. While there are no strict rules about “correct”
or “incorrect” language, these terms reflect much more than personal preferences. They reflect
individual and collective histories, ongoing scholarly debates, and current politics.
“People of color” vs. “Colored people”
People of color is a contemporary term used mainly in the United States to refer to all individuals who
are non-white (Safire 1988). It is a political, coalitional term, as it encompasses common experiences of
racism. People of color is abbreviated as POC. Black or African American are commonly the
preferred terms for most individuals of African descent today. These are widely used terms, though
sometimes they obscure the specificity of individuals’ histories. Other preferred terms are African
diasporic or African descent, to refer, for example, to people who trace their lineage to Africa but
migrated through Latin America and the Caribbean. Colored people is an antiquated term used before
the civil rights movement in the United States and the United Kingdom to refer pejoratively to
individuals of African descent. The term is now taken as a slur, as it represents a time when many forms
of institutional racism during the Jim Crow era were legal.
“Disabled people” vs. “People with disabilities”
Some people prefer person-first phrasing, while others prefer identity-first phrasing. People-first
language linguistically puts the person before their impairment (physical, sensory or mental
difference). Example: “a woman with a vision impairment.” This terminology encourages nondisabled
people to think of those with disabilities as people (Logsdon 2016). The acronym PWD stands for
“people with disabilities.” Although it aims to humanize, people-first language has been critiqued for
26
Introduction to Women, Gender, Sexuality Studies
aiming to create distance from the impairment, which can be understood as devaluing the impairment.
Those who prefer identity-first language often emphasize embracing their impairment as an integral,
important, valued aspect of themselves, which they do not want to distance themselves from. Example:
“a disabled person.” Using this language points to how society disables individuals (Liebowitz 2015).
Many terms in common use have ableist meanings, such as evaluative expressions like “lame,”
“retarded,” “cripple

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