Boston University Communication Practices Essay

Description

Essential Components & Instructions
Read PMI’s Pulse of the Profession In-Depth Report: The Essential Role of Communications and compare your current organization to the findings within the paper. Is your organization a “high-performing organization” that understands the importance of communication or does your organization struggle with communication?
Note:  you need to research an organization to use for this assignment
Topic 1 – Current Status of the Organization: 
How do you see your current or past organization?
Does your organization struggle with either of the problem areas mentioned on page 4, “A gap in understanding the business benefits” and “Challenges surrounding the language used to deliver product-related information, which is often unclear and peppered with project management jargon”?
Would your organization be considered a “high-performing organization”?
Topic 2 – Recommendations: Which of the following strategies would you recommend for your organization to adopt or to continue? Why?
Close the communications gap around business benefits.
Tailor communications to different stakeholder groups.
Acknowledge the value of project management, including project management communications.

Use standardized project communication practices, and use them effectively. 

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PMI’s
PULSE OF THE PROFESSION IN-DEPTH REPORT
THE HIGH COST OF LOW PERFORMANCE:
THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF COMMUNICATIONS
ORGANIZATI ONAL
AGILITY
MAY 2013
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In the context of organizational project and program management, communications is a core competency that, when
properly executed, connects every member of a project team to a common set of strategies, goals and actions. Unless
these components are effectively shared by project leads and understood by stakeholders, project outcomes are
jeopardized and budgets incur unnecessary risk.
As reported by PMI’s 2013 Pulse of the ProfessionTM, an organization’s ability to meet project timelines, budgets and
especially goals significantly impacts its ability to survive—and even thrive. As they address the urgent need to improve
project success rates, organizations are faced with a complex and risky environment that includes:
»»
»»
»»
A “do more with less” economic climate
Expanding global priorities
Necessity to enable innovation
The Pulse study also revealed that the most crucial success factor in project management is effective communications
to all stakeholders—a critical core competency to all organizations. In a complex and competitive business climate,
organizations cannot afford to overlook this key element of project success and long-term profitability.
Business research from Forbes, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLC and Towers Watson shows that organizations are very
aware of the positive impact that effective communications has on projects, programs, and portfolios. However,
what hasn’t been clear until now is how much of an impact ineffective communications has on project outcomes and
subsequent business success. PMI’s Pulse of the ProfessionTM In-Depth Report: The Essential Role of Communications
provides that eye-opening insight.
PMI’s 2013 Pulse of the ProfessionTM report revealed that US$135
million is at risk for every US$1 billion spent on a project. Further
research on the importance of effective communications
uncovers that a startling 56 percent (US$75 million of that
US$135 million) is at risk due to ineffective communications.
(See Figure 1)
US$135 MILLION
Despite this risk, many organizations admit that they are currently
not placing adequate importance on effectively communicating
critical project information, especially when explaining the
business benefits of strategic initiatives to stakeholders at all
levels of a project. Organizations cannot execute strategic
initiatives unless they can effectively communicate their strategic
alignment and business benefits.
US$75 MILLION
56 PERCENT IS AT RISK
DUE TO INEFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATIONS
TOTAL
DOLLARS
AT RISK
DOLLARS
AT RISK DUE TO
INEFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATIONS
Figure 1. The amount at risk for every US$1 billion
PMI’s Pulse communications research finds that effective
spent on a project.
communications leads to more successful projects, allowing
organizations to become high performers (completing an average of 80 percent of projects on time, on budget and
meeting original goals). These organizations risk 14 times fewer dollars than their low-performing counterparts. The
report also focuses on communications challenges that prevent organizations from accomplishing more successful
projects, and identifies key initiatives that can help organizations improve their communication as they face their own
unique challenges in such a complex and risky environment.
2
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
EXECUTIVES AND PROJECT MANAGERS AGREE:
COMMUNICATIONS IS CRITICAL
Executives and project managers around the world agree that poor communications contributes to project failure. The
Forbes Insights 2010 Strategic Initiatives Study “Adapting Corporate Strategy to the Changing Economy,” found that
nine out of ten CEOs believe that communications is critical to the success of their strategic initiatives, and nearly half of
respondents cite communications as an integral and active component of their strategic planning and execution process.
And project managers see it similarly from their side; according to PMI’s Pulse research, 55 percent of project managers
agree that effective communications to all stakeholders is the most critical success factor in project management.
US$75 MILLION
% OF UNSUCCESSFUL
PROJECTS WHERE
INEFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION IS
CONTRIBUTING FACTOR
(55.7%) 2
=
% OF PROJECTS THAT
FAIL DUE TO INEFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
(CONTRIBUTING FACTOR)
(21.0%)
+
+
% OF PROJECTS
NOT MEETING
GOALS
(37.7%) 1
THE AMOUNT AT RISK DUE TO
INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS,
FOR EVERY US$1 BILLION SPENT
ON A PROJECT
% OF FAILED
PROJECTS’
BUDGET LOST
(35.9%) 1
% OF EVERY DOLLAR
AT RISK DUE TO
INEFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
(CONTRIBUTING FACTOR)
(7.5%)
=ORGANIZATIONS THAT COMMUNICATE MORE
EFFECTIVELY HAVE MORE SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
Figure 2. Ineffective communication puts US$75 million at risk.
The third global PricewaterhouseCoopers
LLC (PwC) survey on the current state of
project management reveals that, according
to executives, effective communications
is associated with a 17 percent increase in
finishing projects within budget.
MET
MET
ORIGINAL
ORIGINAL
GOALS
GOALS
71%
ON
ONTIME
TIME
Similarly, the Towers Watson 2011-2012
“Change and Communication ROI Study
Report” shows that companies that have
highly-effective communications practices
are 1.7 times more likely to outperform their
peers financially.
52%
WITHIN
WITHIN
BUDGET
BUDGET
HIGHLY-EFFECTIVE
HIGHLY-EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATORS
COMMUNICATORS
MINIMALLY-EFFECTIVE
MINIMALLY-EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATORS
COMMUNICATORS
37%
76%
48%
Figure 3. Organizations that communicate more effectively have more
Clearly, organizations are very aware of
successful projects.
just how critical effective communications
is to the success of strategic projects
and, ultimately, organizational success. However, the Pulse communications research finds that only one in four
organizations can be described as highly-effective communicators. This suggests that the majority of organizations
have opportunities to identify problem areas and chart a course to improve the effectiveness of their project
communications. The Pulse communications report quantifies just how much effective communications can lead to
more successful projects, and just how much ineffective communications can cost an organization.
Sources:
1
PMI’s 2013 Pulse of the Profession™
2
PMI’s Pulse of the ProfessionTM In-Depth: The Essential Role of Communications
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
3
THE REAL RISKS OF INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
Not all projects succeed. On average, two in five projects do not
meet their original goals and business intent, and one-half of those
unsuccessful projects are related to ineffective communications.
(See Figure 4) This translates to US$75 million at risk for every
US$1 billion spent – more than 50 percent of the US$135 million
reported by PMI’s Pulse report. (See Figure 2)
Due to ineffective
communication
UNSUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
Not only is an organization risking dollars, but it is risking
project success rates. Our research proves that ineffective
communications leads to fewer successful projects; organizations
that are minimally-effective communicators report significantly
fewer projects that meet original goals, come in on time, and
complete within budget. (See Figure 3) Organizations must
take ownership of this problem and spearhead initiatives that will
improve communications and prevent additional project failures.
Figure 4. One out of five projects is unsuccessful due to
ineffective communications.
THE COMMUNICATIONS GAP, LANGUAGE CHALLENGES
Results reveal that while all aspects of project communications can be challenging to organizations, the biggest problem areas are:
»»
»»
A gap in understanding the business benefits.
Challenges surrounding the language used to deliver project-related information,
which is often unclear and peppered with project management jargon.
The Gap Surrounding Business Benefits
PMI’s research indicates that organizations recognize that effective communication is an important component of success.
However, it also reveals that understanding the importance of communication does not always guarantee successful
communications. Our study finds a disconnect within organizations; while business owners and executive sponsors report that
communications about business benefits and alignment to strategy is communicated, project managers do not agree. PMO
directors and senior project leaders in the organization must take ownership of this gap and translate the business benefits of
strategic initiatives to the project teams. (See Figure 5)
60%
57%
54%
64%
62%
57%
66%65% 67%
63%63%
59%
68%
65%67%
60%
62%
52%
43%
OBJECTIVES
BUDGET
PRACTITIONERS
SCHEDULE
SCOPE
EXECUTIVE SPONSORS
OUTCOMES
BENEFIT/STRATEGY
BUSINESS OWNERS
Figure 5. Compared to project managers, business owners and executive sponsors report
that their organizations are communicating business benefit/ contribution to strategy of
projects more frequently. (Average Top 2 Box (Virtually Always/ Most of the Time))
4
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
“Everyone needs
to understand the
long-term goal so
they can know how
they’re contributing,
how they’re making
an impact.”
Jennifer Georgius,
Program Manager at TD Bank
COMMUNICATION ABOUT BUSINESS BENEFIT AND CONTRIBUTION TO
STRATEGY = MORE SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS
PERCENT OF PROJECTS MEETING ORIGINAL GOALS AND BUSINESS INTENT
When companies close the gap between the developers of the strategy and those that must execute it, projects are more
successful. Organizations that report more frequent project communications, particularly surrounding the business benefit
and contribution to strategy, average significantly more successful projects versus organizations that communicate that
same information less frequently. (See Figure 6)
The Pitfalls of Poor Language
100%-
Research findings show that organizations
90%- have
difficulty communicating with the appropriate
80%-levels
70%of clarity and detail. This difficulty is likely exacerbated
by the divide between each key audience60%and its
50%understanding (or lack thereof) of project-specific,
40%technical language. (See Figure 7)
84%
81%
82%
65%
60%
54%
30%20%- the
Not surprisingly, this trouble spot also impacts
10%success of an organization’s strategic initiatives.
0%-of five
The data show that an average of four out
NON-TECHNICAL
WITH SUFFICIENT
BUSINESS
LANGUAGE
CLARITY &
BENEFIT/
projects that are communicated with sufficient
DETAIL
STRATEGY
clarity and detail—communicated in the language
COMMUNICATE FREQUENTLY
COMMUNICATE INFREQUENTLY
of the audience—meet their original business goals
Figure 6. COMMUNICATE
Frequent communication
thatFREQUENTLY
is clear and relevant, and
HIGH PERFORMERS
MORE
and intent, compared to just over half of projects
frequent communication about business benefit and contribution to
ACROSS
TOPICS, INCLUDING COMMUNICATING THE
when communications are not sufficiently clear
and ALLstrategy
leads to more successful projects. (Percent of projects meeting
STRATEGY/ BUSINESS
detailed. (See Figure 6)
original goalsBENEFIT
and business intent)
From these indicators, it is evident that project success is dependent upon communicating the correct information to the
appropriate stakeholders, using clear and relevant language that resonates with the audience.
IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS TO MAXIMIZE SUCCESS AND MINIMIZE RISK
Clearly, organizations that communicate
more effectively have more successful
projects. Findings show that high
performers are more effective
communicators. Thus, it is no surprise
that highly-effective communicators
are five times more likely to be high
performers3 than minimally-effective
communicators. And as reported in
the Pulse study, high-performing
organizations put 14 times fewer
dollars at risk. These findings suggest
that low performers can clearly benefit
from improving their communications
practices, as improvements will enable
them to realize more successful
projects, and fewer dollars at risk.
(See Figure 8)
More projects that finish on time, within the original
budget, and with meeting the original goals and
business intent of the project are the hallmarks of
high-performing organizations, as they average 80
percent or more of projects for these three measures
(compared to low performers’ average of 60 percent or
fewer projects for all three measures.)
66%
63%
64%
62%
62%
TIMELY MANNER
PRACTITIONERS
59%
57%
56%
SUFFICIENT CLARITY
& DETAIL
66%66%
59%
57%
APPROPRIATE
SETTINGS OR MEDIA
NON-TECHNICAL
LANGUAGE
EXECUTIVE SPONSORS
BUSINESS OWNERS
Figure 7. The most difficulty reported is communicating with the appropriate clarity/
detail, while the largest gap is communicating with universally understood language.
(Average Top 2 Box (Virtually Always/ Most of the Time))
38%
HIGHLY-EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS ARE
MORE THAN 5 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO BE
HIGH PERFORMERS THAN MINIMALLYEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS
7%
3
HIGHLY-EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATORS
MINIMALLY-EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATORS
Figure 8. Communication effectiveness and high performance: those who
communicate more effectively are more likely to be high performers.
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
5
Data show that high-performing organizations distinguish themselves by excelling in all quantified aspects of project
communications, specifically with regard to the gap and trouble spots noted earlier.
»»
High-performing organizations are better at communicating key project topic areas, including objectives, budget, schedule,
scope, outcomes and the project’s business benefit. (See Figure 9)
»»
Additionally, high-performing organizations are notably better at delivering project communications in a timely manner,
providing sufficient clarity and detail, using non-technical language, and choosing appropriate settings or media for the
delivery. (See Figure 10)
»»
High-performing organizations use formal communications plans more frequently, and more effectively
compared to low-performing organizations. High performers create formal communications plans for
nearly twice as many projects. (See Figure 11) And, project communications plans for high-performing
organizations are more than three times as effective compared to their low-performing counterparts. (See Figure 12)
83%
81%
73%
79%
76%
75%
77%
75%
72%
64%
49%
42%
36%
38%
39%
39%
36%
40%
34%
25%
OBJECTIVES
BUDGET
SCHEDULE
SCOPE
OUTCOMES
BENEFIT/STRATEGY
TIMELY MANNER
SUFFICIENT CLARITY
& DETAIL
NON-TECHNICAL
LANGUAGE
APPROPRIATE
SETTINGS OR MEDIA
HIGH PERFORMERS
LOW PERFORMERS
HIGH PERFORMERS
LOW PERFORMERS
HIGH PERFORMERS
CREATE
FORMAL COMMUNICATIONS
PLANS
FORperformers
NEARLY TWICE
AS MANY
PROJECTS
Figure
9. High
communicate
more frequently
across
Figure 10. High performers communicate more frequently
all topics, including communicating the strategy/business benefit.
(Average Top 2 Box (Virtually Always/ Most of the Time))
than low performers in all ways of delivering the message.
(Average Top 2 Box (Virtually Always/ Most of the Time))
PROJECTS CONTAINING A FORMAL
PROJECT COMMUNICATION PLAN
HIGH
PERFORMERS
68%
38%
LOW
PERFORMERS
68%
20%
LOW
PERFORMERS
HIGH
PERFORMERS
LOW
PERFORMERS
Figure 11. High performers create formal communications
plans for nearly twice as many projects.
6
Figure 12. Project communications plans for high-performing
organizations are more than three times as effective.
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
EFFECTIVE STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATIONS
LEAD TO MORE EFFECTIVE PROJECTS
Communications are impacted when different stakeholder groups
use different jargon and language. This communications issue can
also lead to different expectations for a project, which ends up
impacting the bottom line.
“… In any project you have to adjust the language depending on the
audience [in one example] there is a technical team who understands
the technical terms very well but doesn’t understand all the project
management terms. So the project management terms need to be
translated into terms they can understand.”
“At the middle management level, they understand ‘operations.’
They understand more details, and probably these are the people
that I can use the project management terminology, and some
technical terminology, with – but not deep, deep technical
terminology… Senior management, they speak the language of
money. They want to know ‘hard numbers,’ ‘yes or no,’ … They are
more focused on the ‘business value,’ on ‘cost and benefits… but
not so much on the project management terminology. So in that
case I also have to translate that language into terms they are
familiar with and that they want to hear – which most of the time
is about money.”
It is clear that high-performing organizations are far more successful
at communications. Not surprisingly, the study also reveals that
high performers realize the critical importance of communications
to the success of their projects—much more so than low-performing
organizations (69 percent versus 58 percent). And, placing
importance on communications isn’t the only area in which high
performers excel; high-performing organizations report all project
management-related tasks as much more important compared to
their low-performing counterparts. (See Figure 13)
95%
94%
92%
79%
74%
89%
85%
76%
70%
“A few years ago we had a major media project involving new
technology and it was very complex. Communication was confusing
because it was new technology and there were high expectations.
So the sales department was very good at communicating a vision
and communicating some benefits… But the technical language
in the communications wasn’t that clear… So when I received
the project, I started to put together all the parts, going through
the contract and preparing all the resources. And I realized
that there was a disconnect between the vision and what
the solution was going to deliver. Because of the lack of
technical knowledge and because of the complexity in the
contract and how the proposal was created, there were
many inaccurate assumptions.”
“So the first step in the project was clarifying that for senior
management. There was a misunderstanding about what the
solution was going to deliver. After many conversations
between the technical people and senior management we
decided that instead of being one project it would be three
phases in order to meet the deliverables desired by senior
management.”
IDENTIFYING
PROJECT
REQUIREMENTS
PROJECT
MANAGEMENT
COMMUNICATIONS
BALANCING PROJECT MANAGING
SCOPE, QUALITY,
PROJECT
SCHEDULE, BUDGET,
STAKEHOLDERS
RESOURCES AND RISK
HIGH PERFORMERS
66%
SOURCING AN
EFFECTIVE
PROJECT TEAM
LOW PERFORMERS
Figure 13. High-performing organizations report that projectmanagement related tasks are much more important compared to
their low-performing counterparts. (Percent Top 2 Box (Critically/
Very Important))
– Victor Olvera, Program Manager, Cisco Systems
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
7
THE WAY FORWARD
Organizations that want to improve their communications and become high performers,
should consider the following strategies.
1.
Close the communications gap around business benefits.
PMO directors and senior project leaders need to take ownership and better
communicate the strategic and business benefits of projects to those responsible for
their implementation. When the gap is closed, projects are more successful. High
performers are able to optimize outcomes by relaying this information to project
teams frequently and effectively.
2.
Tailor communications to different stakeholder groups.
Many organizations have difficulty communicating with the appropriate level
of clarity and detail and in the appropriate language to all stakeholders. High
performers understand that various stakeholder groups use language differently
and tailor communications accordingly; they also recognize that all groups need to
have a clear vision for the project and, ultimately, organizational success.
3.
Acknowledge the value of project management, including project
management communications.
The Pulse reports that most organizations undervalue project management, which
results in poor project performance. Findings show that high performers place
more importance on project management tasks, particularly project management
communications. As demonstrated, successful communications are more apparent
in high-performing organizations, because they recognize the importance and value
of effective project management communications, and project management.
4.
Use standardized project communications practices, and use
them effectively.
The Pulse reports that high performers are almost three times more likely
than low-performing organizations to use standardized practices through
the organization, and have better project outcomes as a result. One form of
standardized project management practice is a formal communications plan,
which, though standardized, must be adaptable and suitable to all stakeholders.
Findings show that high performers are using formal project communications plans
more frequently and more effectively, allowing them to successfully operate in a
complex and competitive business climate.
With US$75 million at risk due to ineffective communications – more than 50 percent of
the US$135 million for every US$1 billion spent – the need for effective communications
for project and ultimately, organization success, is clear. Project success is dependent
upon communicating the right information to the appropriate stakeholders using clear
and relevant language that resonates with the audience. Ultimately, more effective
communications leads to improved project and program management, more successful
projects, high performance, and fewer dollars at risk.
8
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
CONSISTENT
COMMUNICATIONS FROM
PROJECT TO PROJECT LEAD
TO EFFICIENCIES
Consistent communications is critical to
any successful project. Communications
protocol developments and appropriate
information and knowledge distribution
allows the team to meet original
business goals efficiently. The more
information that is shared across the
organization regarding a project or
deliverable, the chances of scope
creep diminishes.
IBM’s “Keys to Building a Successful
Enterprise
Project
Management
Office” found: “One consistent project
management delivery approach across
IBM that improves delivery timeliness
and delivery timeliness and deliverable
quality while reducing project costs.
Communication is simplified and more
timely with standardized tools, formats,
and terminology. Project managers
across IBM benefit from others’
experience so they no longer waste
time reinventing techniques already
successfully used.”
PMI’s Pulse of the ProfessionTM In-Depth Report: The Essential Role of Communications research was conducted in March
2013 among 742 project management practitioners with three or more years of project management experience and who
are currently working in project management full-time, and among 148 executive sponsors and 203 business owners who
have been involved in large capital projects with total budgets of US$250,000 or more in the past three years and are within
organizations with a minimum of 1,000 employees worldwide.
PROJECT OWNERS NEED TO SPEAK THE LANGUAGE OF THE C-SUITE
Communicating to an organization’s top leadership requires sensitivity to both language and
form with the right amount of detail is critical to success.
In “Speak the Language of Leadership” by Phil Bristol and Gary Yeatts, they explain “With
an expertise in the science of project management, a project manager (PM) communicates
complex concepts using a highly defined, specialized language… have specific meaning
and help project management professionals converse concerning the technical aspects of a
project. This specialized project management language assists a PM to understand then apply
knowledge in a particular project.”
“Just as the technical language for managing a project helps to define outcomes, the language
of leadership assists a PM to understand and apply communication skills in a way, which creates
trust, manages conflict, invites commitment, and embraces accountability while producing the
right results. Successful PMs have both, project management and leadership skills.”
Director of Project Management at AT&T Jason Gadsby notes “I think the folks that fail are not
tying it back to our senior level strategy.”
©2013 Project Management Institute, Inc. The Essential Role of Communications, May 2013.
9
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Running head: FULL TITLE OF YOUR PAPER IN CAPS ON ONE LINE
Paper Title
by
Your Name
PJM 6XXX Name of the Course
Month, day, year
1
ABBREVIATED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
2
Abstract
Abstracts begin flush left and identify your findings and implications.
Keywords: the key words themselves are lowercase and are not italicized. Use three to
five words that someone might use to look up this work in a search engine. [“Keywords” is
indented and italicized and the actual key words are not italicized and are not indented if they go
beyond one line].
Please note: The title page, abstract and reference page does not count toward your overall
paper length. If the assignment requires 2-3 pages, the page count begins with the
introduction section and ends with the conclusion.
ABBREVIATED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
3
Introduction
Include an introduction for your paper that introduces the reader to what the paper will
discuss. Example: In this paper, a description of a potential research topic will be introduced
along with highlighting key characteristics of the intended audience. Then, in order to reach the
targeted audience, a description of a venue will be provided along with relevance to the research
topic. Finally, the process required to submit as well as participate in the venue will be explored.
Topic / Question Title 1
In the second paragraph, begin addressing your first topic or question. This should
directly align to what you stated you were going to talk about in the first sentence of the
introduction. When citing sources, be sure to follow APA 6th edition. Example: As an educator
and a practitioner within the project management profession, the importance of transformation
that is occurring in the workplace, specifically the adoption of digital strategies and technology
is becoming increasingly relevant (Sundararajan, 2017).
Topic / Question Title 2
Please follow the same pattern as above.
Topic / Question Title 3
Please follow the same pattern as above.
Conclusion
Here is where you summarize your work. The conclusion should inform the reader of
what they just read. Example: As the field of project management continues to evolve, it will be
important to capture the voices of participants within the profession. To do this effectively will
require engaging research participants throughout the entire process. Methods such as coconstructive interviews and subsequent dialogue will ensure participants are actively engaged
ABBREVIATED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
and their voices to be heard further shaping the professional abilities of students and future
project managers.
The last item is the reference page. The reference list begins on a separate page.
4
ABBREVIATED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER
5
References
It is critical that you know, understand, and apply the knowledge that APA requires that EACH
reference cited in the text or body of your paper MUST appear in the reference list. Chapter
seven in the APA manual gives you reference examples. Everything is double-spaced and there
is a hanging indent.
You will need to use the APA Publication Manual to ensure that your reference list is correct.
This information may be different than what you remember from your undergraduate days.
Each reference cited in the text or body of your paper must appear in the reference list and
each entry in the reference list must appear in the text.
Example references are below:
Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge
(PMBOK guide). Newtown Square, PA, USA: Project Management Institute.
Project Management Institute. (n.d.). Global conference overview. Retrieved from
https://www.pmi.org/global-conference.
Project Management institute. (2018). PMI global conference champions of change. Retrieved
from https://www.eiseverywhere.com/eSites/2018globalconference/Homepage.
Sundararajan, A. (2017). The future of work. Finance & Development, Vol. 54, No. 2
Thiry, M. (2013). The future of project management in a digitised economy. Paper presented at
PMI® Global Congress 2013—EMEA, Istanbul, Turkey. Newtown Square, PA: Project
Management Institute.

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